This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
Female genital mutilation
Badreldeen Ahmed, Mandy Abushama, Zahra Ghaffari
Female genital mutilation (Circumcision) countries. In a country like Sudan, where
comprises all procedures that involve partial circumcision is widely practiced in spite of
or total removal of the female external genita- parliamentary act abounding the practice de-
lia and or injury to the female genital organs cades ago (Abu Shama, A. O., et al., 1949). It
wether for ritual, cultural or other non- thera- is illegal in many other part of the world like,
peutic reasons (W.H.O, Geneva, 1995). United Kingdom, most European countries
Specific law do exist against the practice of and in the United States.
Female genital mutilation (FMG) in many Keywords: genital, mutilation, circumcision
Prevalence of female what it looks like and not ask questi- burning of the clitoris and surroun-
genital mutilation:
ons which are very embarrassing to ding tissue; scraping of tissue surroun-
the women at this very sensitive and ding the vaginal orifice (angurya cuts);
It is estimated that about 120 - 140 highly emotional time. These women cutting of the vagina (gishiri cuts);
millions women and girls experienced feared receiving poor care during preg- introduction of corrosive substances
FMG, and that about 2 million girls nancy, particularly at the time of deli- or herbs into the vagina to cause ble-
had undergone one form or other of very. Many European countries have eding or for the purposes of tightening
the procedure every year. Most of the- developed code of conduct for health or narrowing it; and any other proce-
se women live in Africa (Figure 1) and professionals. At the national level dure that falls under the definition of
some Asian countries. many countries developed guidelines female genital mutilation given above.
The type of procedure, the age when under different names, but these gui- This classification system may not
it is performed, the prevalence in the delines does not exist in every country be always helpful, for example in cases
community and the socio-cultural and where victim of FMG lives (Proceeding that seems to comprise the most se-
economic factors, which support its of the Female Genital multilation ex- vere form of infibulation, the clitorial
continuation, vary widely across the pert meeting, November 1998). may actually still be present.
communities that practise FGM. In
addition, formal health service pro- WHO CLASSIFICATION Complications of female
visions and the availability of trained
OF FEMALE GENITAL genital mutilation:
health professionals also vary widely.
An influx of young couples, refuge-
A: Immediate complications:
es, and students from countries where Type I - Excision of the prepuce, with 1. Severe pain
circumcision is still widely practised or without excision of part or the enti- 2. Infection and abscess formation
has meant that health care providers re clitoris 3. Sever haemorrhage, this probably
in USA and European countries are Type II - Excision of the clitoris with is the most common cause for hospital
seeing these women in hospital outpa- partial or total excision of the labia admission following FGM. This some
tient clinics and GP practices making minora time may necessitate blood transfusi-
a global problem. These circumcised Type III - Excision of part or all of on with all the possible complications
women are concerned with the heal- the external genitalia and stitching/ of blood transfusion.
th care provider’s lack of knowledge narrowing of he vaginal opening (infi- 4. Acute retention of urine
about female circumcision. These wo- bulation). 5. Death is a very rare complication
men will require sensitive antenatal Type IV – Unclassified include the of FGM as the result of severe haemor-
and intrapartum care. The physicians following: rhage (clitorial artery is quite extensi-
and the midwives should have some Pricking, piercing or incising of the ve and cutting it may result in severe
knowledge about the custom of female clitoris and/or labia; stretching of the blood loss) or septicemia.
circumcision and infibulation, at least clitoris and/or labia; cauterisation by B: Late complications of FGM:
pag. 166 Vol. 4, Nr. 3 /septembrie 2008
Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68
Produced with Yudu -