This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
MOCVD tools  industry


Slashing epi costs for a lighting revolution


LED light bulbs will only catch on when their prices plummet.Various measures can help to realise this, including turning to growth on the Crius II-L,an MOCVD tool that sets new benchmarks for throughput, epiwafer uniformity and efficiency of gas and precursor consumption, says Aixtron’s Rainer Beccard.


W


ith some devices, the euphoria of their invention is followed by a lengthy period of figuring out what to do with this new contraption. But when the white LED was invented in the 1990s, that was certainly not the case. It’s killer application was abundantly obvious from its very inception – solid-state lighting.


Tapping into this lucrative market was not a foregone conclusion and would hinge on tremendous reductions in device manufacturing costs. Great strides continue to be made in this direction, with costs falling by typically 90 percent per decade. And hand-in-hand with this progress, the LED’s efficiency, in terms of its lumens per Watt, has increased at a similar rate.


Given these rapid gains in affordability and efficacy, it would be easy to think that nothing now stands in the way of a solid-state lighting revolution. After all, LEDs already exceed the magical 100 lm/W threshold, making them at least as efficient as compact fluorescent bulbs. What’s more, LED-based replacement lamps with standard sockets are now widely available in many parts of the world, with sales in some countries aided by legislation to phase out incandescents. And if sales do take off really rapidly, the supply chain will be able to cater for this hike in demand, because LED manufacturers have already ramped up their production capacities to accommodate for this eventuality. But there is still one crucial issue that must be addressed – cost.


October 2011 www.compoundsemiconductor.net 43


Even though a few LED light bulbs have been offered in Asia at extremely attractive prices, the average 60 W equivalent LED light bulb retails today for $30 to $40, far more than most people are willing to pay.


Breaking down costs


Although the cost of LED plays a major role in determining the price of an LED bulb or luminaire, other factors also come in to play. According to the solid-state lighting roadmap published by the US Department of Energy this July, half the cost of the luminaire is related to the packaged LED, with the remainder dictated by the optics, mechanical and thermal assembly and driver electronics.


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156  |  Page 157  |  Page 158  |  Page 159  |  Page 160  |  Page 161  |  Page 162  |  Page 163  |  Page 164  |  Page 165  |  Page 166  |  Page 167  |  Page 168  |  Page 169  |  Page 170  |  Page 171  |  Page 172  |  Page 173  |  Page 174  |  Page 175  |  Page 176  |  Page 177  |  Page 178  |  Page 179  |  Page 180  |  Page 181  |  Page 182  |  Page 183  |  Page 184  |  Page 185  |  Page 186  |  Page 187  |  Page 188  |  Page 189  |  Page 190  |  Page 191  |  Page 192  |  Page 193  |  Page 194  |  Page 195  |  Page 196  |  Page 197  |  Page 198  |  Page 199  |  Page 200