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ENERGY MANAGEMENT


• Other equipment: Other systems and equipment of high energy consumption reported included water heating – especially in the kitchen, and radiology equipment, such as tomographs and X-ray machines. The hospital does not have a boiler. The equipment used for heating water used natural gas or are electric, and are serviced once per year.


incandescent light bulbs to allow for the regulation of brightness. There are independent controls for turning lights on/off, enabling the optimisation of their use.


automatic shut off. The study undertaken showed an incipient concern of the major hospitals of the city of Salvador with the optimisation and reduction of energy consumption – with the hospitals under state management being in less favourable conditions. The reasons identified range from a lack of resources for investment to simple ignorance of the importance of the topic. This lack of awareness causes a clear detriment to the management of health resources, which always affects society as whole.


Actions to optimise energy consumption – The unit is in the process of complying with ISO 14001 (Environmental Management System) which requires optimised use of energy and natural resources, contributing to the reduction of costs over the long- term. The hospital conducts training and lectures on the use of equipment and behavioural practices, promoting a culture of saving energy. Some facades are fitted with louvers for sunlight control, as well as shutters built into frames. There are measures in place to optimise water use in the building, such as faucets that shut off automatically. The hospital used treated well water for gardening and cooling towers.


Conclusion Table 1 shows a summary of the items previously reported, facilitating comparison among the institutions visited. Overall, there were no up-to-date and coherent energy saving policies in any of the hospitals visited. Some limited measures are taken, such as substitution of light bulbs, without medium or long term planning. The charity hospital is the only one that conducts evaluations and monitoring of energy consumption, taking actions to reduce spending through the capture of solar heat (installation of solar panels to preheat water).


The air conditioning system is the


largest consumer of energy in all of the health facilities visited, but only the charity hospital was willing to make a significant investment to reduce energy consumption by installing a modern centralised system. The public hospitals lack standardisation in the adoption of a system type, and there are even cases where there is redundant operation in the same environment, with a noticeable increase in energy expenditure. The private hospital, because it is the most modern (built 25 years ago), already had a centralized system, which was planned to handle the expansions that were done. The implementation of ISO 14001 should be emphasised as an


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The starting point for the adoption of optimising measures will, therefore, be the continuing education of managers and staff at the institutions. Diagnostic studies on the energy consumption of hospitals, as in the present study, certainly contribute to this goal, as well as the implementation of awareness programs, environmental education and an organisational culture focused on the optimal use of natural resources.


Solar panels have been installed on the roof of the charity hospital to preheat water.


important environmental measure in this unit. As for lighting, the charity and private


hospitals use incandescent light bulbs. The charity hospital has not yet implemented (but has a plan to do so) a standard to use fluorescent light bulbs for the entire building and the private hospital justifies the use of incandescent light bulbs by giving patients control of brightness for their comfort. In regards to controls, however, the charity hospital was the only one that did not have independent controls for turning on/off lights in some environments, despite also being the only one to have a motion detector for


Total


constructed area (m2


)


State-run Hospital 01


State-run Hospital 02


28,000 192


No. Beds


Air conditioning


Combination: Central + Window + Split


32,000 544


Combination: Central + Window + Split


References 1 Henk Schepers, Regis Decome. Cost-effective energy savings in healthcare. IFHE Digest 2013. Step Communications: United Kingdom, p21-3.


2 Robin Guenther, Joshua Karliner (2011). Global Green and Healthy Hospitals, 2011. Health Care Without Harm. http://gefmedwaste.org/downloads/ Global%20Green%20and%20Healthy%20 Hospitals%20Agenda.pdf Accessed on 1 March 2013.


3 Brasil. Datasus 2013. Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde. http://cnes.datasus.gov.br/ Accessed on 1 March 2013.


Characteristics Lighting


Fluorescent Other


No central water heating


Fluorescent


Central water heating by diesel oil boiler


Actions to optimise


energy consumption


Fitting windows with window film. Substitution of light bulbs.


Substitution of boiler fuel with natural gas. Substitution of light bulbs. Fitting windows with window film. Removal of light bulbs.


Charity Hospital


44,600 229


Combination: Central + Window + Split


Fluorescent + incandescent


Central water heating by diesel oil boiler


Implementation of a central air conditioning system. Hiring a consulting firm. Monitoring energy consumption. Solar panels for preheating water. Motion detector.


Private Hospital


Central 17,520 147


Fluorescent + incandescent


Central water heating by boiler (two energy sources: electric and LPG)


Independent controls for turning on/off lights. Shutters on facades. Venetian blinds built into the frames. Implementation of ISO 14.001.


Table 1: A summary of physical characteristics and energy consumption of the hospitals visited. IFHE DIGEST 2014





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