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ENERGY MANAGEMENT


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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Hospital identification number and those selected ()


Figure 1: Distribution of hospitals in Salvador by number of beds. Created by the authors using data from Datasus (Brasil, 2013).3


used for this purpose are showers and electric heaters, which leads to a higher energy consumption.


Actions to optimise energy consumption


– The action determined was the substitution of incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent light bulbs. In order to optimise the use of the air conditioning system, sun control window film was installed on windows that receive direct sunlight.


Profile of state-run hospital 2 – This hospital has seven floors, 32,000 m2 constructed area, 28,000 m2 of climate


of


controlled area, 544 beds and over 5,000 occupants per day. • Air conditioning: There is no standard for the air conditioning system. Various systems are in operation in parallel, such as window units, splits, self-contained units, (only where magnetic resonance imaging is performed due to specific requirements for this environment) and a central air conditioning system. There are situations in certain environments where two systems are used simultaneously, such as a central air conditioning system and a split type air conditioner.


• Lighting: Fluorescent light bulbs are used in the building. There are independent controls installed for turning on and off lighting fixtures in the same environment, taking advantage of natural light and saving energy.


• Other equipment: The equipment or systems listed as major energy consumers


are stoves, boilers, heaters, and a central vacuum pump system. This hospital has a diesel oil boiler system for heating water with a regularly scheduled maintenance programme – weekly, monthly, and annual.


Actions to optimise energy consumption


– Substitution of boiler fuel (diesel oil) with natural gas (planned). Replacing incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent light bulbs. In order to optimise the use of air conditioners, window films were put on windows that receive direct sunlight. The hospital also undertook the removal of some light bulbs near the lighting spaces of the environments. This action is reported to have led to a reduction in energy use for lighting of almost 20%.


Profile of charity hospital – The charity hospital stands out as a pioneer in the use of advanced technology medical equipment. It has a constructed area of 44,600 m2


and 10


floors in its main block. The climate- controlled area is estimated to be 40,000 m2


.


• Lighting: There is no standardisation in the use of light bulbs in the building. Motion detectors were used in some environments but the lights do not all have independent controls for turning on/off.


With 229 beds, the number of occupants per day is estimated to be between 4,000 and 5,000. • Air conditioning: The air conditioning equipment is not standardised, and central air conditioning systems, window units and splits are used.


‘A picture was created about the current stage of implementation of optimisation strategies and environmental compliance of energy consumption of the larger hospitals in the region.’


IFHE DIGEST 2014


• Other equipment: There is a regular maintenance program for the boilers, which occurs annually. There is concern regarding the efficient use of water and the wastewater treatment plant.


Actions to optimise energy consumption


– A recordkeeping spreadsheet was provided that shows the changes in energy consumption from 1995 to 2009. Using this spreadsheet it is possible to identify 2006 as a turning point for the reduction of the building’s energy consumption. After the installation of a new chilled water system, the monthly energy consumption decreased from 1,088,001 kW to 772,429 kW per month. According to this table, in the year 2012 there was an average consumption of 811,466 kW per month. In January 2013 there was an increase of 130 kW per hour over the month of December 2012. The cause of this increase is being analysed, but is possibly related to the building of a new block. A consulting firm was hired to recommend solutions to increase energy efficiency. In regards to the use of equipment to reduce energy consumption, solar panels were installed for preheating of water.


Profile of private hospital – This hospital has an estimated constructed area of 17,520 m2


and a cooling capacity of 970 RT.


With 147 beds, the number of occupants is estimated to be up to 2,000 per day. • Air conditioning: The air conditioning system accounts for 70% of the hospital’s energy consumption. Virtually all environments in the hospital are cooled using central air conditioning. Only in construction areas, maintenance projects, and in the human resources area are split type air conditioners used.


• Lighting: The majority of light bulbs used in the building are fluorescent. However, in some situations, the incandescent light bulb is used to promote patient comfort. The patient rooms, for example, have


97


Number of beds


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