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Spatial and functional briefing

Concept massing (m2


Schematic design


(Systems modelled)


tender/contract documents


SUPPLIER MODELS (for fabrication)

FM BIM Operation

and maintenance model/s


LOD 100

LOD 200

LOD 300

LOD 400

LOD 500



ASSET Figure 2: Diagram representing a generic representation of the BIM process.

Similarly there are significant benefits that could be gained in the long-term for strategic asset management of facilities – even through the standardisation and centralisation of information. The 2004 US report by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)3

risks during construction, as well as streamline long-term maintenance requirements.

highlighted the most

significant proportion of cost for owner/operators (at the time around $10 billion USD) was from the waste associated with information generated within silos and the inconsistent nature of information exchange, management processes, and reliable access to information throughout the full life-cycle of design, delivery and operation. It stated: ‘The majority of the estimated

costs were borne by owners and operators; the O&M phase has higher costs associated with it than other life-cycle phases as information management and accessibility hurdles hamper efficient facilities operation.’ The conclusion of this report nominated

that ‘interoperability’ of information costs the industry and this is directly related to the failure of the management of upstream design and construction processes. Examples included poor communication, inadequate standardisation of data and oversights in the needs for data downstream.3 The benefits are seen as greatest reaching for the healthcare industry due to the complexity of health facility buildings being service-heavy. Virtual coordination of designs during the design phase can reduce costs and

BIM Implementation ‘BIM Implementation’ is a term used to describe the global trend for the application of strategies of various national government bodies to guide wider industry participation for synchronised approaches to the use of BIM. If coordinated at a wider industry level, BIM is seen as one of the most promising advancements in the AEC industry. This development towards BIM Implementation stems from clients (both Government and Private) realising the benefits of a more integrated design and construction process centered on maximising the opportunities enabled by ever-developing technologies. The ultimate outcome from this integrated process is a single source of truth of the information of a facility and better enabled long-term asset management.

BIM Implementation Maturity – towards integration in Australia To understand BIM implementation, there needs to be an understanding of what the basic milestones are for ‘projects’ or organisations to achieve while they implement BIM processes and technologies. BIM Maturity models define the BIM stages for minimum BIM requirements at particular.4 The key concept is that a ‘pre-BIM’ state is clearly articulated and subsequent

‘As the industry embraces BIM and seeks to exploit from both the process and the tool, we are on the right track to reduce project life-cycle costs and provide less disruption to clinical activities during construction projects.’


incremental stages to reaching ‘full-BIM’ are shown for every organisation within the industry to compare against. ‘Full BIM’ can be likened to where all information on a project is shared and there is a collaborative two- way multidisciplinary process leading to the transfer of information from pre-planning all the way through design and construction to an asset/facilities management handover. This concept is fundamental to BIM implementation and the change, or shift, from one stage to another is something that needs to be managed effectively for success. In Australia there are a number of industry initiatives supportive of a more collaborative and integrated approach to the delivery of built assets. The author’s experience is that this has been adopted first and foremost in

the healthcare sector. In 2009, the industry body, CRC for Construction Innovation, with the Australian Institute of Architects was fundamental in the development of a maturity diagram for the Australian industry to be benchmarked against (Fig.3).5

Many government and/or

leading industry BIM implementation strategies include BIM maturity models to define the minimum requirements and to assess the BIM practice/progress of the relevant industry. The ‘levels’ are assigned to describe what the current and future state of BIM practice/implementation is. These ‘levels’, or indicators, are important

to provide widespread consistency in expectations for the industry to follow. This approach is not dissimilar to that which is currently used in the UK. However, as opposed to the UK, the Australian Government is yet to formally acknowledge any BIM implementation plan or any BIM maturity model. Figure 3 shows the proposed Australian

context for BIM maturity from the Digital Modelling Guidelines (2009) description of BIM implementation ‘levels’. Level 0 is 2D (CAD); Level 1 – Isolated Modelling; Level 2 – Collaboration; and, Level 3 – Integration.5 Even though the Australian Government is yet to formally mandate any national plan for BIM implementation within the Australian context, industry groups have made some significant steps toward BIM implementation in recent years. Among the most important advances are: BuildingSmart Australasia (National BIM Initiative Report for Government, 2012), CRC for Construction Innovation (National Guidelines for Digital Modelling Standards, 2009), Natspec National BIM Guide, BIM Brief and BIM Management Plan templates, 2011). These documents are important in providing consistency and local context for BIM implementation in Australia.


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