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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY


Table 2: Ranking matrix


Performance score Condensation Durability Fire Thermal Acoustic Total Weighting (%)


20 20


Technology framework The South African context places different performance requirements on building systems in order for them to be regarded as appropriate and efficient. These differences relate to climate, materials availability, skills availability, building standards and social acceptability. The materials to be used in the construction of a building are dependent on the building system employed. Since a novel/non-standard building technology is to be used for the rapid deployment clinic, a review of Agrément’s certified building systems was performed. Based on the Act, Agrément stipulate the type/class of building occupancy that may be built using that technology. For the purposes of this paper, only the building systems that are certified for clinics, day clinics, health facilities and hospitals were reviewed. As the foundation and roofing systems


available are largely standard systems with limited variation from one system to the next the focus of the review was on the walling systems. For rapid deployment, speed and ease of construction are paramount. The desired building technology would be one that constructs a building off site, under controlled plant conditions using light materials, and designed to the same codes and standards as conventionally built facilities. These technologies enable a building to be produced in ‘modules’ that when put together on site, reflect the identical design intent and specifications of the most sophisticated traditionally built facility. The technologies generally used for modular buildings are insulated steel panels, insulated fibre cement panels, or concrete panels. For the purposes of this study concrete panels are excluded due to their mass and difficulty in transporting in terms of rapid deployment.


15 30 15 100


System categorisation From an analysis of the relevant Agrèment certificates the walling systems were categorised as follows: • Structural frame with panel infill building systems.


• Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) systems. • Frame and cladding systems.


Comparative assessment methodology The appropriate Agrèment certified systems were compared in a matrix format and ranked according to the categories above. The performance requirements used to score the systems are based on the assessment criteria as indicated above. The scoring system is set out in Table 1. The ranking matrix as used is shown in


Table 2. The five categories reflect the assessment categories of Agrèment while the weighting is a subjective analysis of the indoor requirements of a clinic. A higher value is ascribed to thermal performance to avoid the installation and use of air conditioning systems in clinics. The systems from each classification of the


ranking matrix that scored above three were taken and analysed further having regard for the specific performance requirements of clinics namely thermal comfort, energy efficiency, durability and maintenance, and quality.


Conclusion From the analysis the Ikhaya Future Building System and the MIG SIP Building System were found to offer the best technical performance


with the least negative performance characteristics. The AMSA system has additional maintenance requirements in coastal areas while the MI system is dependent on an insulating ceiling to achieve comfortable indoor summer temperatures and lower winter energy consumption. The Ikhaya Future Building System


comprises of a core of expanded polystyrene (EPS) having a density of 16kg/m3


, galvanised


steel mesh either side of the EPS, and finished with a 40 mm coat of 15 MPa gunite plaster. A reinforced concrete ring beam is provided at eaves level. The MIG SIP Building System comprises a


core of polyurethane insulation encapsulated in a skin of 11mm oriented strand board (OSB) with an internal skin of 15mm thick fire resistant gypsum plaster board and an external skin of 12 mm medium density Nutek fibre cement board. The Ikhaya system has an external


appearance resembling a conventional plastered building but is not as adaptable as a consequence. The Ikhaya system offers more secure fixing of equipment to the wall due to the 40 mm mortar coat. The MIG system is a panelised system so


has the appearance of a prefabricated building but is more adaptable. The MIG system offers a less secure fixing of equipment to the wall as fixing relies on the strength of the OSB and internal gypsum board. On balance the Ikhaya system appears to offer superior technical performance while the MIG system will be quicker to deploy. 


References 1 www.doh.gov.za/primary_health_Care 2 Agrèment (2010). Building approval and the National Building Regulations, www.agrement.co.za Accessed on 23 August 2013.


‘The desired building technology would be one that constructs a building off site, under controlled plant conditions using light materials, and designed to the same codes and standards as conventionally built facilities.’


Providing insights into the vast field of healthcare engineering and facility management


86 IFHE DIGEST 2014


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