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ENERGY MANAGEMENT Professor C. Alan Short – Professor of Architecture, University of Cambridge


The hospital environment in a changing climate


The Department of Health (DH) in the UK has observed that ‘during relatively mild heatwaves, excess death rates are significantly, but avoidably, higher in this country.’2


The maintenance of safe


temperatures in hospitals is imperative, due to the effect of climate change. This article examines how the National Health Service (NHS) can deliver safe environments while at the same time dramatically reducing its carbon emissions?


The UK Climate Impact Programme 2009 predictions suggest an increase in the number of extreme heat events in England, most particularly within large conurbations where summer heatwaves are amplified by the ‘urban heat island’ effect. A 2003 heatwave led to 15,000 excess deaths in Northern France. The UK heatwave of June/July 2006 is thought to have increased deaths over baseline mortality by 4%; there were approximately 300 excess summer deaths after the 2009 heatwave between 30 June and 2 July.1


This article summarises key findings from


two recent multi-disciplinary research projects. The first project, funded by the National Institute of Health Research, devised a notional low-energy new-build hospital template as a basis for testing and discussion. The second project focused on refurbishment. Entitled Design and Delivery of Robust Hospital Environments in a Changing Climate, it was funded by the Engineering and


‘The UK Climate Impact Programme 2009 predictions suggest an increase in the number of extreme heat events in England.’


24


Physical Sciences Research Council with support from the DH. Detailed reports are being published as an ongoing series of academic papers, while a 30-minute broadcast-quality film captures many of the key points. It can be freely downloaded or streamed at www.sms.cam.ac.uk/media/ 1446036. Currently 5% of the UK


workforce is employed in NHS buildings, while one million people visit every 36 hours.3 The NHS generates 25% of UK public sector emissions, and 3% of total UK emissions4


at a


cost of almost £600 million a year.5


NHS carbon reduction


targets are mandatory, but the NHS Sustainable Development Unit reports that the targets are being missed. In 2013 the


Alan Short


Professor C. Alan Short is the Professor of Architecture at the University of Cambridge, and principal of Short and Associates, Architects. He has designed and built a number of award-winning low- energy non-domestic buildings in the UK and beyond during the last 20 years, including the Lanchester Library, Coventry; Braunstone Health and Social Care Centre, Leicester; and the School of Slavonic and Eastern European Studies at University College London. He won the RIBA President’s Award for Outstanding Practice-Based Research in 2009 for the new-build hospital project discussed in this article.


IFHE DIGEST 2014 GUM PLANT ATRIUM RECORDS PLANT


EDUCATION CENTRE


RENAL OPERATING


THEATRES BELOW PLANT


OPERATING


THEATRES BELOW PLANT


OPERATING


THEATRES BELOW PLANT


FM CATERING CSS LIBRARY STAFF STAFF STAFF STAFF STAFF STAFF


Stairs and lifts Courtyard


Figure 1: New-build hospital proposition, basic layout strategy.


prognosis is exactly as it was in 2008.6 The addition of mechanical cooling (air conditioning) to NHS buildings lowers temperatures, but will not deliver the necessary energy savings. NHS organisations have targets for delivered energy of 35-55 GJ/100 m3


in new


Void


Isolation rooms Controlled access point


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