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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH


Landscaping According to Abbud,7


landscaping is the only


artistic expression which involves the five senses of a human being. Through landscaping, it is possible to admire the most diverse and complete perceptual experiences. Landscaping works by creating or restoring the natural environment in which we live, in order to attend the functions defined by man.5


Ergonomic issues To undertstand the meaning of ergonomics it is necessary to understand the significance of Professor Etienne Grandjean’s expression, which defines ergonomics as a ‘study of the adaptation of work to man’. But the work in this direction has wide meaning, covering all components involving the situation that occurs in the relationship between man and his work. It also needs to consider furniture and equipment, tools, environment and related factors, in addition to the psychosocial aspects contained in the accomplishment of the work.8 In 2002, Dr Roger Ulrich9


said that the


visual exposure of the natural environment, for a few minutes a day, can serve as an exhaust ‘valve’ to everyday unavoidable situations. Pilotto,5


selected some benefits


that are considered to be significant to the worker. These are shown in Table 1.


Dissemination through sustainable architecture According to Pilotto,5


sustainability emerges


as an inevitable response to the dynamic and growing tension between nature and technology in contemporary society. It is in the landscape that this conflict is more easily perceived, and also where any solution can be tested. Built and urban environments contribute to the degradation of the natural environment, and a change in the quality of human life. Sustainable architecture is the answer to contemporary needs. It aims to improve the quality of human life by balancing social, environmental and economic needs.10-11


Conclusion The preservation and implementation of natural spaces in workplaces, especially in healthcare environments, can contribute towards the restoration of the physical and mental health of working professionals, helping to improve their quality of life. Sustainable architecture provides an opportunity to spread green areas – contributing to the landscaping and should also consider the ergonomic possibilities in this environment.


Create rest areas


Table 1: This adapted chart, from Pilotto (1997) shows the benefits of ergonomic landscaping.


Benefit Harmonise, humanise and integrate environments Create tranquiliser environments Give comfort Definition


Irregular forms break the rigidity of masonry and concrete, integrating the environments.


Assist in combating fatigue and stress through the diversity of colours and presence of different forms.


Through the comfort generated by shading buildings or outdoor areas you can create comfort zones for workers during periods of excessive sunlight during the warmer seasons, reducing excessive heat.


With massive composition of different species of trees allows for the creation of rest areas.


These environments were designed to encourage sociability, to promote relaxation and contemplation and to encourage restoration of the body and mind. Between 1889 and 1890, Vincent Van Gogh (1853- 1890), a post-impressionist painter, represented the gardens of the Hospital of Saint Paul Mausole in Saint-Rémy in France into his paintings. The landscapes he visualised during asylum were the inspiration for many paintings. According to Constantino,2


since the 


References 1 Gerolla G. Saúde in Loco. Revista AU. 2007. Disponível em: http://www.revistaau.com.br/ arquitetura-urbanismo/154/arquitetura- hospitalar-39529-1.asp. Acesso em: 28/06/2012 às 12:35.


2 Constantino NRT. Novas funções do paisagismo: IFHE DIGEST 2014


1970’s, there has been concern about the humanisation of healthcare environments in developed countries. By definition humanising the health architecture is the art of adapting its construction to the needs and wishes of patients, caregivers, visitors and employees, creating a physical environment adequate to promote the development of work and assist in the recovery of the patient.


The deployment and maintenance of


green areas in the healthcare environment is commonly associated with a positive impact on patients, caregivers and visitors, when viewed. However, it is important that the natural environment is actually integrated into the built environment, and not just put in a prominent place simply to publicise its existence. All possibilities in the implementation or maintenance of these environments should be considered – for example, around the formation of roads and zoning areas,6


to the ergonomic aspects that


contribute to the worker’s quality of life, to allow employees to enjoy a rich source of restoration. Green areas, when intentionally located,


contribute to an improvement in the quality of work environments. In this way, landscaping can be used as an ergonomic tool, transcending its initial design.


‘The first therapeutic gardens in Europe appeared in the Middle Ages, based on those already existing in Persia, Egypt and the Far East.’


57


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