This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT


deployed in low-energy non-domestic architecture in the UK and beyond, from the last two decades.8


The basic idea is to use the


essentials of architecture – orientation, layout, building mass, size/position of windows and other openings – to minimise cooling and lighting energy demand from the outset, rather than to design a ‘business as usual’ building and then to apply ‘green’ technologies. The hospital is arranged around


Paving slabs Bamboo


Box hedge


Gravel or shells as ground cover


Yew ‘blobs’ Gravel or shells as ground cover


Clematis amardii (evergreen climber) has white flowers


Simple, calming planting schemes of evergreen and white. Very low levels of maintenance required. Shade-tolerant evergreen plants.


Figure 2: New-build hospital proposition, section. Supply Exhaust


courtyards to help wayfinding and provide daylight and views (Fig. 1 and 2). ‘Advanced’ natural ventilation is deployed. The passage of air through the building is organised by means of openings and stacks so that the air moves by largely passive means (Fig. 3). The research suggests that up to 70% of the floor area of an acute hospital can be wholly or partly naturally conditioned, with a further 10% deploying a ‘hybrid’ strategy (with mechanical systems used for part of the time when needed). Air enters the building after being cooled naturally in an underground chamber, and is ducted through the building. It rises under its own buoyancy and is exhausted by dedicated stacks. No air passes from one space to another. Annual energy performance in the current climate is predicted as 38 GJ/100m3


. Many of these ideas can also be employed 6 4 3 2 KEY


Fresh air supply Air exhaust Dampers Heating element


1 2 3 4 5 6


Air inlet to labyrinth located under windows Uninsulated labyrinth below courtyard Pre-cooled/warm air enters room at low level Openable windows at low level allow fresh air to corridor Transfer ducts allow the passage of fresh air to internal rooms Exhaust air leaves rooms at high level


Figure 3: New-build hospital proposition, ventilation strategy. buildings and 55-65 GJ/100 m3 when


refurbishing existing facilities; these figures are for all building uses including space heating, hot water, lights, appliances, and catering.7


However, the energy use of the


majority of NHS Trusts in England is significantly higher, being in the range of 44.8-98.0 GJ/100 m3


peaking at 125 GJ/100 m3 IFHE DIGEST 2014


for 2004/2005, .


Hospital environments are currently


informed by a DH guidance document which suggests that there should not be more than 50 occupied hours each year when the maximum dry-bulb air temperature exceeds 28˚C. This limit is intended as guidance, but is often taken as a ‘standard’ to be followed, particularly when new hospitals are constructed. The research team’s new-build hospital proposition uses strategies successfully


5 1 2 6


in refurbishment. However, current refurbishment projects within the NHS are often essentially cosmetic, intended to improve the patient experience. The author suggests that more ambitious interventions could yield greater results. The NHS Estate within England comprises 28 Mm2 in total, with 18.83 Mm2


acute hospital accommodation on 330 sites.7 There


are a number of recurrent basic ‘type’ configurations of building found across many of these sites, including: pre-1939 ‘Nightingale’ pavilions; 1960s slab blocks; and 1970s/80s ‘Nucleus’ courtyard plans. The project team identified six basic types from a nationwide survey and then selected examples of each type on our partner NHS Trust estates for further investigation.


Investigating existing estates Data loggers were installed in key spaces within the chosen buildings to capture details of internal temperatures over a two- year period.9


External temperature data were


also acquired for this period. A model of each space was then constructed and calibrated against the recorded data, and was projected forwards to 2080, using the UKCP09 climate data. Refurbishment strategies were devised for each type, with a range of options ranging from an ‘industry standard’ approach to more radical options. These options were modelled to 2080, costed, and interrogated for their infection control implications and buildability.10-12 Initial work recorded the internal conditions in the case-study buildings, confirming the perception that many have that hospitals can be hot places. For example,


25


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100