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ENERGY MANAGEMENT


inlets behind the radiators, part of the original design, are unblocked. Lightweight suspended ceilings are removed to expose the thermal mass of the building. Modelling of Option 1 suggested that the space heating demand would drop to an extremely low value of about 5 GJ/100m3


; Figure 7: Addenbrooke’s Option 5 – elevational detail.


lighting and small power gains remain unchanged. The addition of slow-moving patient-operated ceiling fans in Option 2 would offer further benefits in the current climate and would significantly aid future resilience by offering additional comfort during hot periods. As pre-1948 buildings still make up 20% of the NHS estate, the findings from this case study suggest that these buildings should be carefully appraised for potential future use, rather than being simply written off as outdated or redundant.13 In this respect, the team has detailed a number of alternative ward layouts that would increase patient privacy and dignity without compromising environmental performance or infection control (Fig. 10). The ‘Nucleus’ case study hospital in


Figure 8: Recorded temperatures, Bradford Royal Infirmary Ward 8.


accommodates ventilation stacks. A floor is opened out at the centre of the building to provide space for the terminations of the stacks serving the lower floors (Fig. 6 and 7). Natural ventilation is deployed, with ‘cross- over’ ducts allowing ventilation across the building (which is planned with one space either side of a central corridor) without the need for air to pass from one space to another. Exhaust is via operable windows and the external stacks. Suspended ceilings are cut back to expose the mass of the building structure. It is predicted to deliver 20GJ/100m3


in the current climate. Even


with the additional energy required for small power uses the figure would still be comfortably within the DH target range. Modelling using the future climate data shows that the passive/natural strategies will remain comfortable into the 2040s but that a degree of cooling may need to be retrofitted at that stage (Table 2). The strategy for the Nightingale pavilions


seeks to enhance these buildings’ already high level of resilience to overheating (and


IFHE DIGEST 2014


cold weather) (Fig. 8). These buildings have three or four floors of wards stacked above each other in finger-like wings projecting from the main hospital corridor. They are oriented so that their main elevations face east and west with ample opportunities for cross ventilation. Walls are stone. The current energy demand of about 25GJ/100m3


is well


below the NHS target, but can be reduced further. The proposed refurbishment options all involve the addition of external insulation to the wards and the installation of new windows (Fig. 9). Our naturally ventilated strategies (Options 1 and 2) reconfigure the windows to allow a large opening area. The revivification of the ‘Florentine’ window guard ensures patient safety. Dedicated air


Leicester is a typical example of this form of hospital, a chequerboard of accommodation, punctured by regular courtyards. The maximum indoor temperatures in the case study spaces varied in summer 2010 between 27.3˚C and 29.3˚C. The nurse station was found to be the hottest area. Our Option 1 for improvement simply lowers the internal heat gain to the range 33 W/m to 44 W/m by reducing the equipment maximum sensible heat gain (total) from 600 W to 200 W. Option 2 adds a horizontal shading device above the windows. The projection of the shading device is 1m while the thickness is 100 mm. Option 3 adds a slow-moving fan, operational when the internal temperature rises above 26˚C. These very simple interventions promote comfort in typical years through to the 2050s; in extreme years the results are more mixed when assessed against the HTM 03-01 standard, but using the recent adaptive standard BS EN 15251 the wards perform well and demonstrate the effectiveness of these straightforward interventions. The team is currently devising some more


adventurous schemes for courtyard-type hospitals, including the installation of below- ground labyrinths for cooling and the deployment of passive downdraught cooling within the courts themselves. This work will be published in 2014. All the schemes have been costed in detail.


The new-build hospital scheme is estimated at £5,360 m2


by AECOM Davis Langdon. This


figure can be compared, perhaps harshly, with capital costs for notional best upper and


‘The team’s refurbishment strategies have been devised in detail. They have been tested not only in the current climate but also using projections of the UK climate to 2080.’


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