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ENERGY MANAGEMENT


Options1


Table 1: Addenbrooke’s Hospital, refurbishment options and environmental control strategies. Mechanical ventilation


strategy2 0


NVMVRH: Current building, natural and


radiant ceiling heating. 1


SMVHC: Sealed building, mechanical 2


SMVRHC: Sealed building, mechanical


cooling. 3


NVMVPH: Natural


ventilation, mechanical Heating only ventilation, with perimeter heating.


4


CVPH: Natural cross ventilation, perimeter heating.


None Manually Cross


operable. ventilation ducts.


Inactive Yes 22˚C10 Fixed external Substantially


PHsp = 21˚C, shading to exposed south


Perimeter elevation dampers actuated by BMS


5


SVPH: Natural stack ventilation, perimeter heating.


None


Manually Stacks. operable Cross


and BMS ventilation control


ducts. Perimeter dampers actuated by BMS.


0 NV – natural ventilation; MV – mechanical ventilation; RH – radiant ceiling heating; MVHC – mechanical ventilation heating and cooling; RHC – radiant heating and cooling; PH – perimeter heating; CV – cross ventilation; SV – stack ventilation.


1 In all cases: floor area, 70.3 m2


space below, the void, was exposed to external conditions. In all options the internal doors closed. Vertical elevations have 100mm insulation and roof 300mm insulation k=0.025W/mK; window area,12.2 m2 height, 190 m3


; with exposed concrete ceiling at 3.9 m height, c270 m3 Options 2 to 5 – double glazing, no blinds, U=1.9W/m2 K.


4 VHspt – ventilation heating set-point, heat output ramped down from 100% when ambient temperature, Ta 5 VCspt – ventilation cooling set-point, heat output ramped up from zero when Ta


≤18˚C to 100% at Ta


6 Insulation above panels and existing pipe work and connections repaired as necessary. 7 RHspt – radiant heating set-point, output ramped down from 100% when, Ta


9 Occupants assumed to open windows if wind speed below 7.5 m2. Maximum opening, 100 mm, giving an area of 1.0 m2 for 3 NVMVPH, 1.2 m2


8 RCspt – radiant cooling set-point, output ramped up from zero when Ta for 4 CVPH and 1.7 m2


20˚C≤Ta 26 ≤21˚C, then closing to 25% at Ta ≥23˚C. for 5 SVPH. Openings of top and bottom windows by 0% if Ta 10 PHspt – perimeter heating set-point is 21˚C summer and 22˚C winter. Heat output ramps down from 100% when, Ta ≤-3˚C to 60% at Ta ≤18˚C to 100% at Ta ≥20˚C. for Existing option, 2.4 m2


≤15˚C ramping open to 100% at ≤16˚C to 0% at Ta


=18˚C. IFHE DIGEST 2014 ≤16˚C to zero at Ta ≥20˚C. =15˚C, and off at Ta =16˚C. ≤18˚C. ; and with part exposed ceiling height 3.3m on average, Option3, 227 m3


2 All mechanically ventilated strategies have heat recovery at 60% efficiency, with summer by-pass function. 3 Option 1 – existing windows with additional single pane protecting interstitial blinds in ventilated cavity, U=1.8W/m2


K.


, surrounding five spaces all assumed to be at same temperature as modelled space except in option 5 in which the , i.e.17% window-to-floor area ratio. Volumes vary – with existing ceiling at 2.7 m


. Inactive Yes


PHsp = 21˚C, 22˚C10


Deep facade Substantially exposed


Central AHU 4ach-1 VHspt = 18˚C4


Manually operable9


– Inactive Yes 22˚C10 Fixed external Part exposed,


PHsp = 21˚C, shading to existing south ceilings cut elevation


back from perimeter


Central AHU 4ach-1 Heating only


ventilation but radiant VHspt = 18˚C4 ceiling heating and


Sealed


Radiant heating No and cooling6 RHspt=26˚C7 RCspt=22˚C8


Fixed external No shading to south


elevation


Central AHU 4ach-1 Heating only


mechanical ventilation, VHspt = 18˚C4 Central AHU 6ach-1


ventilation with heating VHspt = 22˚C4 and cooling.


= 24˚C5


Air heating and cooling VCspt


Sealed – Inactive No


Blinds within No window system


Manually – Radiant heating No operable


RHspt=30/32.5˚C None No


Natural ventilation strategy


Windows3 Other


Space heating strategy


Radiant Perim. heat. ceiling


Solar shading


Passive environmental features


Exposed ceiling slab


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