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Figure 1: The site plan of Manghopeer Karachi, shows the simple design of the buildings.

smooth the progress of movement of people and assist the approach.

• To have a sense of community by connectivity of lines of sight and facilitate cone of vision; as shown in I and O sites.

• The second determinant of grid should be alignment with the path of the sun and bringing in calculated sun light, as shown in case I and O.

• The linkage and alignment of connectivity of public and private places on the grid infrastructure protects security and prevents crime, due to visual harmony.

• The grid facilitated expansion and amendment of the space, which grows over time, according to economic, social, cultural and environmental prerequisite.

Here EBD is the deliberate attempt to base the building typological decisions on the Best Available Evidence with a universal design achieving the best possible outcomes for the Lepers rehabilitation space.5

The following

morpho-types fulfill the 5S categories at varying levels, the 5S methodology proposed by McCullough (2010), includes the following steps: • Sort: Clear out rarely used or unnecessary spaces (no hidden spaces achieved through the use of grids).

• Straighten: Organised way finding: ‘a place for every leper and every leper has his/her place’ (Lesser angles, maximum one or two 90 degree or rarely 45 degrees angle in the plan form).

• Shine: Clear natural sun for healing, and look for ways to keep it clean. Increasing evidence also underscored the beneficial health aspects of ‘Day-lighting’. Day

• Standardise: Development of a system to maintain uniformity for the spaces allocated for the lepers, in terms of square footage and the amount of hour's that sunlight enters the space which is orientated according to the sun rays.

lighting helps to control lepers disease. Bacteria and viruses are naturally controlled by daylight.

• Sustain: The design should require less maintenance. Since lepers are expected to stay for a longer time. Hence the building should be able to run with minimum regulating and maintaining requirements.

As a design process improvement tool, 5S is the easiest and quickest concept to implement. The 5S program promotes a pleasant, improved efficiency through ease of way finding. Therefore, these determinants are concepts for rational alignment of living spaces to smooth the progress of the movement of people and assist their approach. 5S also enhances a sense of community by connectivity of lines of sight and facilitating the cone of vision (as achieved for I and L plan site). Moreover, the linkages and alignment of connectivity of public and private places on the grid infrastructure protects security and prevents crime, due to visual harmony. The grid facilitated expansion and amendments for the U and H forms that grow over time according to economic, social,

cultural and environmental prerequisites. Determinant one: comparative analysis of connectivity and the movement of people (Sort) – The depth comparison of relationship between lepers movement to the simple grid is analyzed in Figure 2. Physically:

Table 1: Replies from the questionnaire.

For O design the sketches and photographs were shown to the patients for an opinion. I




1:1 1:2

Very calming form Nauseating (due to lack of comfortable amount of UV light)

1:1, 1:2 Inadequate form since it is rigid and a lot of 90˚ edges 1:2 1:1

Gloomy because it is tight ( dark corridors)

Tranquil and highly satisfying welcoming due to the internal open space and views to nature, and presence of relaxing amount of sun.

‘The aim is, therefore, to minimise utilisation of electricity and to maximise the use of full spectrum natural light.’

I, L, U, H and O are morphologies, where linkages are aligned for mobility challenged individuals to interact. Functionally, these forms support the connectivity measures that are introduced here for all the cases in form of zones of direct access axial map. The ability of space syntax used here is to describe the relationships of part-to-whole quantitatively and syntactical accessibility,6

as shown in

Figure 2. Determinant two: I, L, C, h, O route or

linear strategy (straightening) – This strategy uses point-to-point information. For example, using route or linear strategy, a person would obtain directions from point A to point B. If they needed to go further, they would obtain directions from point B to point C, continuing in a linear fashion. This way spatial disorientation is minimised. The purpose is to identify what a person experiences as he or she navigates through the building, and considers how the building’s features – such as long, straight corridors can help or hinder the journey through and perception of the space. Providing views of the outside at the ends of corridors or full-height mashrabia or Brise- soleil whenever possible helps people remain cognisant of their location in the building.7 The connectivity and directness of

utilitarian and recreational mobility for challenged pupils walking along the passage way are examined in Figure 3. Here, the impression produced by the simplicity of form is that each form is pure utilitarianism. For the typologies of I.L.O. arrangement of short linear buildings; residents can monitor the paths outside their lodges and open views of the pathways to make the pedestrians safer (Fig. 3a, 3b & 3e).


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