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SUSTAINABLE HOSPITAL ARCHITECTURE


Air flow across the condenser


Still Sunlight


Glass cover


Secondary reflector


Collector Figure 7. Ice by solar absorption


sulfur oxides. There should be separate networks for aqueduct and fire safety systems.


l Suitable materials for surfaces – walls, ceilings, floors and furniture: These should be non-flammable, non- combustible and non-toxic. The products used in the hospital must not emit volatile organic compounds (CVO), or toxic vapours on combustion. The materials must be durable, resistant, offer a good cost- benefit ratio and lower maintenance cost. They should have ecological certification and be reusable, recyclable and biodegradable upon disposal. The use of polystyrene, in particular, should be avoided. In addition, some materials are not considered viable because they contain toxic chemicals, such as aerosols or pesticides, while some products with artificial aroma can present issues.


l Control in use of equipment: A particularly important example is high energy consumption medical equipment. This may be connected all day but may have a high index of under-utilisation. This needs to be addressed. The use of polluting equipment should be avoided, such as dry polishing of granite elements, as these generate particles in suspension.


l Review ‘medical protocols’ focused on energy saving: Some of these energy saving medical protocols can include: •Fast hospital bed rotations and promotion of day care surgery. •Ensuring only ‘indispensable’ diagnostic tests are performed.


•Reserving the use of elevators for stretchers, the elderly and the disabled, going to the first floor in hospitals.


l Adequate management of solid waste: A strict classification of waste should be implemented comprising: general, recyclable, radioactive,


IFHE DIGEST 2020 Figure 8. Solar distillation of water


contaminated – including dangerous and infectious waste (incinerable or not incinerable). Use different types of storage for uncontaminated and contaminated waste, carrying out the appropriate treatment to the latter (ie. incineration, chemical deactivation or return). Use different colour coding, according to international standards. Design two different routes in hospitals: a) for the exit of contaminated waste; b) the entry of sterile material.


l Adequate handling of liquid waste or dumping: Return the water in an ‘acceptable’ way to the natural bodies of water. There should be separate networks for biologically contaminated waters. These must pass through ‘deactivation units’ for physical- chemical disinfection. Kitchen water must go through grease traps and filters. Soap water and rainwater (separate pipes) must pass by simple solar filters, in order to be reused.


l Appropriate radio-protection study: Protect staff and the public from ionising radiation, or external electromagnetic wave equipment. Lead or equivalent materials should be used according to the standard for radiology. Copper, aluminum or steel should be used in a ‘Faraday cage’ (radiofrequency RF) shield, with high electrical conductivity, for electro- medicine rooms (Magnetic Resonance).


l Ensuring laboratories in hospitals are safe and minimise environmental risks: Sampling should be performed, by conducting chemical and microbiological analysis of water (potable, residual, etc.). It is also important to monitor industrial effluents and to take radioactive samples in radiology.


l Other lesser recommendations: a) disposing of medicines in cloth bags; b) reducing plastic use by opting for reusable glass containers;


c) using water-reducing accessories; d) photocells should be placed in sanitary devices.


Ultimately, we need to change our lifestyles and reduce our impact on the environment. We are using the resources of future generations and must be aware that we cannot return them. There is an urgent need to apply clean technologies and it is vital that we raise awareness about the preservation of natural resources, on a daily basis.


IFHE


References and image sources 1 Garrido L. (2009), Artificial natures; Analysis of Sustainable Architecture Projects.


2 Contraloria General de Colombia, Resolución Orgánica, No.05289 de 2003 Anexo No.7 Página 25 a 50


3 Lugari P. (2009), A New Renaissance in the Tropics, Las Gaviotas Centre, Gallery. http://www.centrolasgaviotas.org/Inicio.html, https://www.virtualpro.co/eventos/gaviotas


4 Ortega E. (1992), Health Center in Bogotá, Social Security Institute, Design and photo prepared by myself.


5 Behling S, Behling S. (2002), The Evolution of Sustainable Architecture.


6. Energía Solar, (2019), Solar Panel, Photovoltaic facade. https://solar-energia.net/ energia-solar-fotovoltaica/panel-fotovoltaico


7. Inarquia, (2019), Advantages and disadvantages of biomass boilers. https://inarquia.es/ventajas-e- inconcenientes-de-las-calderas-de-biomasa


8 ICE, Electricity Company, (2013), Biodigester Tank, Electricity Production with Bio-Gas.


9 Wikipedia, (2019). http://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Geyser_exploding _4_large.jpg


10 EDF Solar, (2019), Nano-antennas to improve Solar Energy, SPIE Journal of Nanophotonics (JNP).


11 Wikipedia, (2019). http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Energ%c3%ada_mareomotriz


12. Bonus Courses, (2015), Manufacture of solar ice, Radiant energy distillation, Thermal Solar Energy Course.


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