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LIGHTING


KÁTIA MARIA MACEDO SABINO FUGAZZA – CEO, FUGAZZA ARQUITETURA, BRAZIL ALEXANDRE GOIS DE ANDRADE – CEO, INTEGRATTA, BRAZIL MAURO CÉSAR DE OLIVEIRA SANTOS – PROFESSOR OF THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL


Analysing light comfort through simulation


The important influence of natural light and ventilation on patient wellbeing in hospitals, is well understood. In this article, researchers at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro highlight the application of computer simulation in performing analysis of thermal and light comfort for the 9th Ward of the Hospital Universitário Gaffrée e Guinle.


The Hospital Universitário Gaffrée e Guinle (HUGG), located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was established in 1929 by the Gaffrée and Guinle family, and originally specialised in the treatment of venereal diseases originating from the Santos/São Paulo Seaport (Sanglard, 2004). Today, it is a hospital of Universidade do Rio de Janeiro – UNIRIO, with 236 beds and multiple specialties. According to Brazilian Standards – NBR 15.220:3 (2005), the Brazilian territory is divided into eight different adapted climatic zones, as outlined in Givani’s Comfort, Climate Analysis and Building


Design Guidelines (1992) – see Figure 1. For each zone there are building guidelines aimed at promoting hygrothermal comfort and defining strategies of passive thermal conditioning. Based on these standards, Rio de Janeiro is situated in bioclimatic Zone 8. Thus, it recommends natural ventilation on all sides of the building and windows should have shading from direct sunlight.


Importance of windows According to Verderber (2010), the relationship between the bedridden patient and the window is significant and


has a strong influence over a patient’s well- being and recovery. The orientation, size, positioning, distance between the bed and window, method of creating shade, and operation (to allow autonomy) are all important factors. Indeed, these factors, along with the ability to see outside and view nature, significantly influence the patient’s recovery and risk of hospital infections, as shown by Ulrich (2001;2002). The comfort and wellbeing of the patients must be taken into account when optimising the environment. Factors that determine building temperature, such as window characteristics, wall and lining material, and air conditioning or heating, must be planned carefully. High temperatures may induce lethargy and decrease productivity, for example. In addition, there is a long history of


Kátia Maria Macedo Sabino Fugazza


Alexandre Gois de Andrade


Mauro César de Oliveira Santos


•Kátia Maria Macedo Sabino Fugazza – Kátia is an architect, from the Architecture and City Planning faculty of the Bennett Methodist Institute (2007), with a master's degree in Architecture from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), specialising in research into Architecture, Design and Sustainability in the Evaluation of Healthcare Spaces. She graduated as an undergraduate in Civil Engineering from the Estácio de Sá University (UNESA). Kátia is the Regional Director of the Brazilian Association for the Development of Hospital Architecture (ABDEH) for Rio de Janeiro. •Alexandre Gois de Andrade – Alexandre is a masters student in Architecture, FAU-UFRJ; production engineer – UGF-RJ; MBA specialisation in 'Eco-efficient Buildings', UFF/LATEC/RJ; Procel Labelling (Specialisation Builds) UFSC/Labeee; and a Professor at the Postgraduate Institute, IPOG. Alexandre is also a consultant in lighting and automation projects and CEO of Integratta company. •Mauro César de Oliveira Santos – Mauro is a Professor of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and was the Director of the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism of the FAU/UFRJ (2014-2018). Mauro has experience in the area of Architecture and Urbanism, acting mainly in housing projects of social interest, health environment projects and evaluation of the built environment. He is a course coordinator of ‘Specialisation in Architecture of Health Environments’, coordinator of the project group and research, Espacio Salud. He has a PhD in Architecture, from Universitat Hannover, a Masters in Architecture from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and graduated in Architecture from the Bennett Methodist Institute.


78


window studies highlighting the importance of natural light. For example, in the 19th century, Florence Nightingale outlined a number of key flaws in a hospital construction – including patient overcrowding in wards, lack of space, and an absence of natural light or ventilation (Nightingale, 1859). Indeed, the hospital’s wards were


70 00 50 40 00


10


20


Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Z5 Z6 Z7 Z8


30 70 60 50


Figure 1. Climatic zones, according to Brazilian standards (Source: NBR: 15.520:3).


IFHE DIGEST 2020 40


0.8% 6.4% 6.5% 2.0% 5.6% 12.6% 12.6% 53.7%


20


30


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