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SUSTAINABILITY


Wide single banked corridor waiting areas catch the sun in winter, but are shaded by roof overhangs in summer. Right: View into main waiting area.


Research (CSIR), a recognised South African research institute. This study included an analysis of the indoor air quality (IAQ) and the indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Indoor air quality was assessed by using carbon dioxide (CO2


Indoor temperature: Although the ) levels as a


proxy for the concentration of respiration- derived airborne pathogens such as TB. Comparing the indoor levels of CO2


to the


outdoor levels provides an indication of the number of times the air has been re- breathed by the occupants of the clinic and thus an indication of the risk of infection. Measured CO2


levels indicate the


outdoor reference level as 420 ppm, which compares favourably to the main waiting area at 543 ppm with 14 occupants at the time of measuring. When the waiting area was later re- measured with 31 occupants present, the reading increased to 614 ppm. The relatively small increase in CO2


levels


indicates that the ventilation system was providing an adequate volume of fresh air, especially considering that all windows and doors were closed during the measurement period.


results give a good indication that the central ventilation system is working, the temperature measurements show that the rock stores alone are not providing adequate warming or cooling of the air to an appropriate comfort level temperature of approximately 24˚C. Indoor thermal comfort is therefore adjusted using additional warming and cooling through split AC units in clinical spaces throughout the facility.


Lessons learned Hillside Clinic has now been in use for approximately one year. Measuring and analysing data did not commence immediately, but early indications are that the facility design decisions are indeed having the desired benefits and should be considered when designing new facilities.


Measuring and monitoring should remain an upfront consideration: Despite a clear desire for a facility with a low environmental impact, budget holders are highly risk-averse. Due to budget constraints, an inadequate control and monitoring system was implemented but,


with hindsight, a more sophisticated system should have been provided. Presently, a large quantity of potentially valuable data is not being recorded because the probes are not connected to a logging device.


Challenge everyone to get on board and stay on board: The building energy performance consultants were employed to do the initial modelling, but not retained during the design development stages. Although the remaining multi- disciplinary team succeeded in delivering a well-integrated design, some initiatives necessarily fell by the wayside. The integration of low-tech and


vernacular methods with relatively high- tech modelling, monitoring and analysis can potentially deliver even better outcomes, but this would require all stakeholders to remain positively engaged throughout the project. The energy consultants were appointed again for a post-occupation evaluation, with funding from another source.


Allow for post-completion monitoring and tuning: When embarking on a project that tests innovative technology, it is necessary to make contractual and financial allowance for post-completion monitoring and tuning over at least a 12-month cycle to help ensure that the facility operates at its full design potential. Adequate training of operational and maintenance staff is essential and may need to be repeated.


Maximise the development and transfer of skills: Whether unskilled or highly skilled, local or national, the search for greater sustainability in buildings depends on the development and transfer of skills.


IFHE Socialising in the winter sun at the entrance forecourt. IFHE DIGEST 2020


Reference 1 van Reenen C, van Reenen T, Nice J, Motsatsi L, Conradie D, de Jager P, van Wyk L, Bhikoo J, Kuschke U. Evidencing the suitability of hybrid design strategies in achieving the recommended Indoor Air Quality in clinics: Case study Hillside Clinic, Beaufort West.


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