construction and adhere to the best healthy design standards, with fundamental principles of sustainable operation.

l Socially Sustainable Geographical Location: The hospital must be situated in an appropriate place to cover the largest population group, saving transportation and time, (and ensuring CO2

reduction). It should be located

away from industrial areas, pollutants, noise and congestion. Services should favour regional industries, with the use and re-use of local products.

l Deep knowledge of the area to design a bio-climatic project: Depending on the study of sun, climate, winds, vegetation, geography, geology, water flow, tree species, soil composition, material cycles, temperature, humidity, rainfall, biota and facilities, renewable resources can be utilised, through the application of sustainable technological innovations.

l Design of strategies to maintain high levels of asepsis: Depending on the activity of each clinical space, an appropriate strategy should be designed to maintain the required level of asepsis, such as: creation of filters, positive/negative air pressure, etc., to avoid nosocomial infections or cross contamination.

l Placing the hospital centre within an ecological context: It is important to consider the eco-urbanistic and bioclimatic environment of the centre, while maximising the use of advanced technologies to ensure low energy consumption. Clean energy should be considered for plant equipment and mechanical air conditioning, such as natural gas and/or steam produced with biomass. It is also important to consider maintaining a green element within the project, constructing living perimeters, without damaging or interfering with the landscape unnecessarily. This should be achieved by applying the ‘Hospitals, Environmental and Disability’ standards.

l Orientation design and natural sunning: The project should consider: •The creation of microclimates. •Design of direct solar lighting, overhead lighting and diffused light (through the use of different types of glass, transparent, opaque, diachromic crystals, sunscreens and translucent walls.)

•The use of photovoltaic facades (invisible solar panels), that allow the entry of sunlight and allow it to be transformed into electricity, as well as the use of traditional solar collectors on facades and innovative photovoltaic nano-antennas collectors. (Fig 5). For hospitals, safety glass should be used.

l Design of natural ventilation: The design should create ventilation with

92 Figure 6. Façade greenhouse chamber.

Figure 5. Façade solar collectors.

appropriate design and location of windows and skylights; as well as using more grilles and less glass, and air chambers on facades, known as a ‘double skin’ (Fig 6). The natural ‘plenum’ system creates air currents between the plate or roof and the ceiling, to obtain an over-pressure that prevents hot air from accumulating. It is recommended to measure the dynamics of air flows and their intensity in order to design natural energy sources, such as ‘eolic’ towers (Fig 4).

l Applying solar innovations: There is a wide variety of solar innovation. Some examples include: thermo-dynamic solar panels for hot water (this achieves a 75% saving in electricity consumption); manufacture of ice by solar absorption, which can be used for food preservation (Fig 7); and distillation of water by radiant energy, using evaporation and condensation of water (Fig 8).

l Comfort and wellbeing: The project should be conceived with an ecological mentality of ‘wellbeing and healing’. This means challenging the culture of a

disposable consumer society by sharing electrical equipment between patients (i.e. TVs and computers) and systems equipment among staff. Sharing of offices should also be encouraged. The energy footprint for each patient and each official can be reduced depending on the concept of comfort that is implemented in the hospital.

l Advantages of the digital hospital and smart building: The use of paper should be minimised (a magazine is equivalent to the destruction of a tree). In turn, this reduces the need for large storage spaces for clinical records etc, and helps ensure information security. It is important to have digital equipment that ensures low power consumption and provides immediate network communication (for medical records, appointments, test results, authorisations, etc.). The use of high reliability telemedicine equipment should be implemented.

l Maintain High Quality of the Interior Environment: Perform routine environmental assessments throughout the stages of: design, construction, assembly of equipment and operation, to maintain the “healthy building”, controlling the internal CO2

levels. Also,

carry out equipment maintenance programmes. This requires a record of the optimum maintenance schedule and meantime to repair for equipment. Predictive maintenance will require testing using an appropriate device (e.g ultrasound, tomograph, etc.) to anticipate a possible equipment failure.

l Adequate drinking water facilities: This requires the construction of facilities in copper pipe of good quality. Pipelines in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) should be avoided as, in the case of fire, this can emit highly toxic gases and acids – such as hydrochloric and


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106