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INFECTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL


reduction of microbial communities on fomites. These solutions, when paired with handwashing and appropriate disinfection, will reduce the risk of bacterial transmission and form part of a system-based approach to minimising HCAIs.


References 1 National and State Healthcare-Associated Infections Progress Report. CDC. 2016


2 Son C, Chuck T, Childers T et al. Practically speaking: rethinking hand hygiene improvement programs in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 2011; 39 (9): 716-24.


3 A Guide to the Implementation of the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy. August, 2009. [Accessed 15 October 2015].


4 Weber DJ, Anderson D, Rutala WA. The role of the surface environment in healthcare- associated infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013;. 26 (4): 338-44.


5 Chemaly RF, Simmons S, Dale C Jr et al. The role of the healthcare environment in the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms: update on current best practices for containment. Ther Adv Infect Dis 2014; 2 (3-4): 79-90.


6 Otter JA1, Yezli S, Salkeld JA, French GL. Evidence that contaminated surfaces


contribute to the transmission of hospital pathogens and an overview of strategies to address contaminated surfaces in hospital settings. Am J Infect Control 2013; 41 (5 Suppl): S6-11.


IFHE


7 Drees M, Snydman DR, Schmid CH et al. Antibiotic exposure and room contamination among patients colonized with vancomycin- resistant enterococci. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008; 29 (8): 709-15


8 Drees M, Snydman DR, Schmid CH et al. Prior environmental contamination increases the risk of acquisition of vancomycin- resistant enterococci. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46 (5): 678-85.


9 Nseir S, Blazejewski C, Lubret R et al. Risk of acquiring multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli from prior room occupants in the intensive care unit. Clin Microbiol Infect 2011; 17 (8): 1201-8.


10 Shaughnessy MK, Micielli RL, DePestel DD et al. Evaluation of hospital room assignment and acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011. 32 (3): 201-6.


11 Huang SS, Datta R, Platt R. Risk of acquiring antibiotic-resistant bacteria from prior room occupants. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166 (18): 1945-51.


12 Shams AM, Rose LJ, Edwards JR et al. Assessment of the Overall and Multidrug- Resistant Organism Bioburden on


Environmental Surfaces in Healthcare Facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016; 37 (12): 1426-32.


13 Dancer SJ. How do we assess hospital cleaning? A proposal for microbiological standards for surface hygiene in hospitals. J Hosp Infect 2004; 56 (1): 10-5.


14 White LF, Dancer SJ, Robertson C, McDonald J. Are hygiene standards useful in assessing infection risk? Am J Infect Control 2008; 36 (5): 381-4.


15 Attaway HH 3rd, Fairey S, Steed LL, Salgado CD, Michels HT, Schmidt MG. Intrinsic bacterial burden associated with intensive care unit hospital beds: effects of disinfection on population recovery and mitigation of potential infection risk. Am J Infect Control 2012; 40 (10): 907-12.


16 Cardiff University. Antibacterial Wipes Can Spread Bacteria Around. Science Daily, 4 June 2008.


17 McBain AJ, Ledder RG, Moore LE, Catrenich CE, Gilbert P. Effects of quaternary-ammonium-based formulations on bacterial community dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70 (6): 3449-56.


18 Page K, Wilson M, Parkin IP. Antimicrobial surfaces and their potential in reducing the role of the inanimate environment in the incidence of hospital-acquired infections. J Mater Chem 2009; 19 (23): 3819-31.


IFHEDigest Providing insights into the vast field of healthcare engineering and facility management IFHE DIGEST 2020 59


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