search.noResults

search.searching

dataCollection.invalidEmail
note.createNoteMessage

search.noResults

search.searching

orderForm.title

orderForm.productCode
orderForm.description
orderForm.quantity
orderForm.itemPrice
orderForm.price
orderForm.totalPrice
orderForm.deliveryDetails.billingAddress
orderForm.deliveryDetails.deliveryAddress
orderForm.noItems
SUSTAINABILITY


wire mesh to further contain the rocks. After being cleaned to remove all dust and loose sediment, the rocks were closely packed between the breeze walls and covered with polystyrene insulation panels, followed by a reinforced concrete floor slab. The air intake chimneys are directly


connected to the intake plenum below the floor. Air moves through the breeze wall and through the rocks to the plenum on the opposite side, picking up heat from the rocks or losing heat to them, depending on the relative temperatures. When desired, this tempered air is


fed into the fan-driven ventilation system that supplies air to the clinical spaces and which then cascades through transfer grilles to the sub-waiting areas. This system is augmented by individually controlled split air conditioning units in the clinical spaces to bring the temperature to the desired level. The combination of chimneys and


rock stores thus form a passive system to reduce the energy consumption of the split air-conditioning units by pre-heating or pre-cooling the fresh intake air before it is distributed into the facility.


Preliminary results (August 2018) Capital expenditure: The total project construction cost was ZAR 19.3 m, which is considerably less than the cost of a similar-sized clinic with conventional HVAC which was completed at the same time. It must be noted that the winning bidder had priced very competitively at the time.


Energy performance: Not much


data is available for clinics generally, as systematic monitoring was only commenced recently. The Riversdale, Wellington and Grassy Park Clinics in the Western Cape were used in this study to calculate the energy consumption of an “average clinic”. The initial results for Hillside were


very disappointing. During September and October the energy usage per a square metre was 30% and 20.5% above that of an average clinic. Following an investigation several items were found to have been incorrectly installed. Most notably, some of the fans were operating in reverse. After corrective actions were implemented the energy performance of the clinic improved markedly. When the monthly kWh usage per


square metre for the Hillside Clinic over a six-month period is compared to the average usage of a similar clinic, the Hillside Clinic performs significantly better during autumn and uses 40% less energy usage than similar facilities. Further investigation revealed that the relatively poor winter performance is due to the incorrect programming of some of the rock store controllers, which continue operating in summer mode, thereby


32


Table 2. Measured temperatures. Location


Date


Outdoor waiting Dec 2017 (shaded)


Jun 2018


Consulting room Dec 2017 Jun 2018


Staff room Main waiting


Dec 2017 Jun 2018


Dec 2017 Jun 2018


Green passage Dec 2017 Jun 2018


Max˚C (time of day) Min˚C (time of day) Range 32.3 (16:00)


19.9 (13:35) 27.3 (18:45)


20.9 (14:43 29.4 (14:24)


24.1 (16:16) –


16.5 (17:00) 28.4 (17:13)


22.1 (16:10)


16.2 (05:45) 4.6 (07:40)


26.6 (07:18) 14.9 (08:28)


22.1 (04:34) 12.6 (07:54)





10.8 (08:46) 21.4 (07:15)


14.8 (08:39) 16.1


15.5 4.7


6


7.3 11.5





5.7 7


7.3 Study conducted by CSIR


supplying the clinic with colder air via the rock stores. This programming error is being remedied. According to the South African National Standard for Energy Efficiency in Buildings (SANS 204-1) the peak energy demand and consumption for a G1 classification of use (consulting rooms or offices) in the climatic zone 2 (Temperate Interior) is 75 VA/m2 190 kWh/m2


and /annum respectively.


Hillside Clinic had a peak energy demand of 37.5 VA/m2


and an annual energy consumption of 73 kWh/m2 , or


approximately 50% and 62% below the maximum respective figures allowed by the standard.


Energy savings: The annualised


average monthly energy consumption of the Hillside Clinic, compared to an “average clinic”, indicates an annual energy saving of ZAR 26,574.20 (2018). Indoor air quality: A comprehensive


study of the performance of various features of the clinic was undertaken by the Council for Scientific and Industrial


Table 3. Annual electricity consumption of Hillside Clinic vs. ‘Average Clinic’. Annual consumption


Annualised Energy (kWh/m2/Year) Typical floor area (m)


Total energy usage (kWh/Year)


Beaufort West kWh tariff (ZAR/kWh)


Service charge (ZAR) per annum


Total annual electricity costs Annual energy cost (ZAR)


Annual saving (ZAR)


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


0 March April May Month Monthly energy consumption of Hillside Clinic vs. ‘Average Clinic’. IFHE DIGEST 2020 June July August


Hillside Clinic 73


1045 76,360 0.84 2640


R 66,782.40 R 26,574.20


1045 107,996 0.84 2640 R 93,356.64


Average clinic 104


9.1 8.7 8.1 7.1 6.7 6.3 5.6 5.1 5.8 6.0 8.2


9.3


n Hillside Clinic n Typical Clinic


Energy consumption (kWh/month/m2


)


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106