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LIGHTING


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0


–10 1 10 100 1000 Circadian Light (CLA ) Figure 4. Circadian Stimulus (CS) versus Circadian Light.


luminal comfort and sustainable design. Nabil and Mardaljevic (2006) proposed


a new approach to the problem of natural light metrics called useful daylight illuminance (UDI), which represents illuminance considered useful, ranging from 100 to 2000 lux. This paper highlights an evaluation of thermal and light comfort at the 9th Ward of HUGG, through computer simulations using DesignBuilder and Licaso software. The current study is not meant to be conclusive, since there were no user interviews.


Adaptive comfort simulation For this paper, the following methodological steps were observed: building characterisation through an architectural survey and on-site visits; climatic characterisation of the building surroundings using data provided by the National Meteorological Institute - INMET (2019), relating to the period from 2000 to 2010, and updated by Roriz (2012), as well as using the EPW [a weather data file] from Santos Dumont Airport. For the simulation, DesignBuilder


41˚F


32˚C 30˚C 28˚C 26˚C 24˚C 22˚C 20˚C 18˚C 16˚C 14˚C


50˚F 59˚F 68˚F 77˚F


Figure 5. Immediate surroundings and HUGG Ward modeled with DesignBuilder.


v5.5.0.12 was adopted together with the EnergyPlus 8.6 tool. The aforementioned data file was used to represent HUGG, due to the climatic similarity and location of both sites. Construction materials, components, openings and solar exposure surveyed by the authors were used for the simulation, and, for the calculation of material properties, Projeteee table was used (2019). The environmental thermal load was defined in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2013 and a 24-hour standard period of treatment and appointments originated from DesignBuilder. The immediate surroundings were modelled in adiabatic component blocks, to provide a barrier for natural ventilation and thermal radiation. This ensured simulation was conducted solely for the zone to be studied, as shown in Figure 5. Through computer analysis it was


found that from January to April and from October to November thermal satisfaction due to adaptive comfort was up to 90%; from May to July thermal satisfaction was up to 80% and thus below the acceptable level (see Fig 6).


86˚F 95˚F


11 12


10 8 7 6 9 5 4 3 2 1 90% acceptability limits HUGG 5˚C 10˚C 80% acceptability limits 15˚C 20˚C 25˚C Average temperature of external dry bulb


Figure 6. ASHRAE 55 Adaptive Comfort Graph. (Source: ASHRAE 55 adapted by authors, 2019).


80 Figure 7. 3D Ward. (Source: Licaso). IFHE DIGEST 2020 30˚C 35˚C


86.0˚F 82.4˚F 78.8˚F 75.2˚F 71.6˚F 68.0˚F 64.4˚F 60.8˚F


Luminal comfort simulation For this research the Licaso program for natural light simulation was used (see Fig 7), since it takes into consideration several types of standard skies and compiles reports utilising the following criteria: illuminance, useful daylight illuminance (UDI), continuous daylight autonomy (cDA), and annual sunlight exposure (ASE). To calculate the circadian stimulus (CS)


autonomy, as proposed by Acosta et al (2015), a special configuration was set up for Licaso, in the mornings (from 7:30 AM to 12:30 PM), as well as photopic illuminance (233 lux) at eye level obtained through the CS calculator. These values were taken into account for all available metrics in the program, in accordance with Figure 8. The Ward would receive a 0.35 CS rate


for at least one hour every morning. Standard CIE D65 lighting was considered (6500K), as available by the CS calculation tool from Lighting Research Center.


As shown in Table 2, taking cDA metrics into consideration (minimal


10,000


Outdoors Night


Indoors Night


Indoors Office


1000 lux 1000 lux 300 lux 300 lux 100 lux 100 lux 30 lux 30 lux Daylight Incandescent –0.1 100,000


Outdoors Daytime


0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0


Circadian Stimulus (CS)


Indoor operative temperature


Melatonin suppression (%)


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