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TECHNOLOGY


Control and Innovative System Integration of GEOTABS in Hybrid Low Grade Thermal Energy Systems. Ter Potterie – a home for the elderly,


located in Bruges, Belgium – was completed in May 2016 and has a conditioned floor area of 10.048 m2


,


across three floors and 121 rooms. The ground (borehole thermal energy


storage) is the main heat source for the building and is coupled with the TABS. A ground source heat pump provides hot water for TABS and for floor heating circuits. The ground is utilised by means of a heat exchanger to obtain free cooling in the cooling season, and it provides cooling for TABS circuits and the air- handling unit. There are also natural gas fired


condensing boilers, which provide hot water to the radiators, air-handling units and the domestic hot water tank. As a backup to the heat pumps (in case of failure), the boilers can also provide hot water to the TABS circuits. TABS is the main heat emission (heating) and removal (cooling) system. There are also radiators, and floor heating/ cooling in the ground floor. There is a central mechanical ventilation system with supply, exhaust, and heat recovery. The ventilation system removes part of the load in the cooling season. No other mechanical cooling systems are installed. The building is grid connected, and can also produce its own electricity through photovoltaic panels and a diesel- powered emergency generator. The pilot project also explored Model


Predictive Control (MPC) – an advanced method of process control, with the ability to anticipate future events and optimise control measures accordingly. Currently in the experimental phase, model-based predictive control can be used for thermal systems (heating, ventilation and cooling) and has several advantages, of which energy saving is the easiest to quantify. Studies achieve 15-30% savings on energy consumption of a building in simulations and practical implementations. These energy savings are achieved by having the systems operate more efficiently and by better anticipating external factors such as the influence of weather conditions. The thermal mass of a building can be


used, for example, to retain “free” heat from the sun on sunny days, so that the heating can be set off a few hours earlier. MPCs can also be very flexible. For example, residual heat from one zone in the building can be actively diverted for heating another zone through underfloor heating or concrete core activation. On a larger scale, the same energy exchange could take place, in the long term, between different buildings, through a heat network. Other benefits are improved thermal


IFHE DIGEST 2020


Ter Potterie, in Bruges, Belgium uses an innovative thermal energy system.


comfort and reduced wear, as well as reducing the commissioning cost of a building. Moreover, mathematical models can also be used for other purposes, such as the detection of errors, or simply for predicting the indoor temperature or energy consumption in the near future. MPC uses an internal prediction of the behaviour of the building, for the following days, facilitating optimisation. To evaluate and optimise the system,


different measurements were made and data was gathered. There are three measurement approaches: l Indoor environment (operative temperature, relative humidity, radiant temperature asymmetry, CO2


concentration, etc.)


l System operation parameters (supply and exhaust air temperatures from zones, ventilation rates, etc.)


l Energy use of the building (energy use for different building functions, and energy production, if applicable).


Supplementary sensors were calibrated in the building. This procedure was completed by Dec 2017-Jan 2018. The measurement equipment was installed in Jan-Feb 2018, and most of the measurement devices will be kept until the end of the project. This will enable the collection of measurement values for one year prior to the implementation of the MPC and one year after implementation. In addition to these measurements,


questionnaires are being distributed to the building occupants to evaluate the occupant satisfaction with the indoor environment. This data should provide insight into the performance of MPC.


Model-based predictive control can be used for thermal systems (heating, ventilation and cooling) and has several advantages, of which energy saving is the easiest to quantify. Studies achieve 15-30% savings on energy consumption of a building


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