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WATER MANAGEMENT


Herlev Hospital is the biggest


emergency hospital in the capital region of Copenhagen, with many highly specialised departments and research activities. The hospital holds 949 beds, 6,300 employees and keeps expanding with new activities and buildings. The waste water treatment plant is


the largest and first installation in the world to test and demonstrate a complete solution to on-site waste water treatment specifically targeted to remove the unique pollutants generated in hospitals. The plant was commissioned in May 2014 and, after two years of testing and optimisation, it commenced operation.


Plant overview The full-scale waste water treatment plant has been designed to treat the total waste water flow from the hospital which is around 150,000 m3


/year, equivalent to


the needs of a small town with 3,000 inhabitants. The system can deal with a broad range of substances from viruses and multi-drug resistant bacteria to medical contrast agents, chemicals for cancer treatments as well as hormone- disrupting substances. As well as treating the waste water, the plant has also been designed to clean air emissions for pathogens and odour – so it can be placed close to the hospital and its neighbours. Other aspects of the plant were the ability to ensure that the by-products of the treatment can be disposed of in an environmentally sound way – and not just moving the problem to another location. In other words – a complete solution (see Table 3).


The design The waste water treatment plant, placed inside a 15 x 33 m building at the south- end of the hospital ground, comprises a number of separate modules holding


1 Pretreatment. 2 Flow equalisation and bioreactor tanks.


3 Sludge Treatment (screw press, sludge drier and sludge bag).


4 Supply (air blowers, air treatment, chemical for membranes).


5 Membrane Filtration Units. 6 Polishing (GAC, Ozonation and UV).


2


6 5 4 3 1 Figure 1. Overview of Herlev waste water plant consisting of different modules.


different functionalities of the plant (see Fig. 1). The first stage is the pre-treatment or


screening stage where the heavy solids, hair and fibres are filtered out of the waste water using 1.5 mm screens before entering the reactor tanks placed outside the building. Here, biological processes with


activated sludge in combination with microfiltration membranes, known as membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology takes place to remove not only conventional nutrients – such as organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus – but also a fraction of the micro pollutants generated in the hospital. The rotative


Table 1. Hospital effluent charateristics and outlet quality. Parameter


COD N-tot P-tot


Toxic and persistent antibiotics (eg ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin


and sulfamethoxazole), painkillers (eg diclofenac), and cytostatics (eg capecitabine)


X-ray contrast media (eg iomeprol) Antibiotic resistant bacteria


Ecotox effect – Fish fry (zebra fish) Ecotox effect – Crustaceans (daphnies) Hormone disrupting effects


20 High concentration (2.5-7.0 mg/L) 99% removal


High presence of multi-resistant bacteria No faecal or multi-resistant bacteria 100% mortality (death) within 96 hours 0% mortality (death) within 96 hours No offspring (all daphnies died) Oestrogen effects


Off spring survive like in clean water No oestrogen effects


IFHE DIGEST 2020


Raw untreated sewage 876 mg COD/litre


62 mg N-tot/litre 13 mg P-tot/litre


ceramic microfiltration membrane holds back the bio-sludge and ensures completely suspended solids-free water for the following polishing stages.


The polishing stages Following the MBR, the waste water is treated further with ozonation, granular activated carbon and finally UV. Ozone is a powerful oxidation agent


and it reacts with those organic substances normally difficult to degrade including pharmaceuticals. Ozone is generated from standard liquid oxygen stored outside the plant. Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)


filters remove a range of contaminants like


Final outlet from plant 11 mg COD/litre


2.5 mg N-tot/litre 0.3 mg P-tot/litre


Factor 10-300 exceeding of effect limits No exceeding of effect limits for water living organisms


for water living organisms


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