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SUSTAINABILITY


top of brick foundation walls, clear of the natural ground level. The 600 mm wide cavity was then filled in layers of 300 mm and tamped down from the middle to the edges. After curing for approximately seven days, the shuttering was stripped and the quality revealed. After some early teething problems, it became somewhat of a competition to see who could build the best wall. To finish the walls, a breathable sealant


was applied externally and a weak plaster mix internally. An in-situ cement window sill protects the walls beneath from water ingress, while a concrete ring beam forms a lintel over openings and carries the roof structure.


Importantly, the walls are low


maintenance and require no paint. Local material was used, requiring less transport and the use of fewer kiln fired bricks, achieving a reduction in embodied energy. The construction process was labour-


intensive and provided an opportunity for skills development. It is hoped that these newly acquired skills will be used again for other projects in the area.


High level chimneys and underfloor rock stores: Because air conditioning consumes the greatest portion of electricity in the day-to-day operation of a clinic, it also presents the greatest opportunity for savings. In the interest of airborne infection


control, our clinic requirements were for 100% ducted fresh air, with minimum of six air changes per hour (AC/h) in consulting rooms and 12 AC/h in waiting areas.


In summer and winter, Beaufort West has long periods where it is necessary to temper any supply of fresh air in order to create the indoor conditions required for a comfortable and healing environment. To reduce the amount of cooling and heating energy required in this fresh air supply process, a system of roof stacks and underfloor rock stores was developed. The system works on the principle that,


Table 1. Measured CO2 Location


Outdoor reference Entrance reception Main waiting area


Inter-wing passage


Consulting room passage Baby clinic sub-waiting room Staff passage


Consulting room sub-waiting Infectious diseases sub-waiting


levels. Occupants Ventilation condition 1 Open door


14 Ducted fresh air 31 Ducted fresh air


2 None (ducted fresh air) 10 None


4 Ducted fresh air 1 None 1


4 None CO2 (ppm)


420 433 543


Ducted fresh air


614 624 683 504 395 515


497 Study conducted by CSIR IFHE DIGEST 2020 CONSULT ROCK STORE


Sections showing high level chimneys and underfloor rock stores


HWC A


SOLAR PANEL


HWC A


SOLAR PANEL


WAITING


Air flow through chimneys, rock store and mechanical distribution system


Hybrid passive – mechanical ventilation.


as air moves through a rock store, there is a transfer of heat between the air and the rocks. Heat transfer always occurs from hotter to cooler bodies, so hot air loses heat to cooler rocks while hot rocks lose heat to cooler air. Given the large diurnal swing in outside air temperatures typical of Beaufort West, a rock store can be used to temper fresh air before it is circulated inside the building. At the Hillside Clinic, fresh air is taken in


through high-level chimneys and circulated through the underfloor bed of


rocks, which tempers the air and reduces the burden on the mechanical HVAC system by reducing the temperature differential of the supply air. Fresh air is taken in via chimneys that mimic those of the surrounding houses and used air is expelled via another set of chimneys. The cowl design is based on an airplane wing, to create an updraft. Research indicated that we needed to


find rocks that both had a high heat capacity, and sufficient surface area for efficient energy transfer. The optimal stone was described as round with a diameter of 90-100 mm. Most fortuitously, the surrounding countryside is littered with rocks that match this specification perfectly. After developing the model further, it


was determined that the most economical and practical method for implementing the rock stores was to separate them into six individual local stores, each serving the area immediately adjacent to it. It was anticipated that a temperature


moderating effect of +/–4˚C would be achieved, with a resultant reduction in energy consumption.


Construction of the rock stores:


breeze walls were constructed inside the “basement pit”, parallel to the length of the foundation walls and 600 mm away from them, to form a plenum on either side. These breeze walls were lined with


31


Air flow bypasses rock store CONSULT


ROCK STORE


WAITING


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