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It is worth noting that the carrier lifetime currently observed demonstrates a lower bound as the sample structures in this study have not been completely optimised. Better understanding of the recombination mechanisms, as well as improved bandgap designs are expected to further advance the existing gallium-free T2SL performance.


Further details of the work have been published in the paper, “Significantly improved minority carrier lifetime observed in a long-wavelength infrared III-V type-II superlattice comprised of InAs/InAsSb”, by E. H. Steenbergen et al, Applied Physics Letters, 99, 251110 (2011); DOI:10.1063/1.3671398.


This work is partially supported by AFOSR and an ARO MURI program. Figures are reprinted with permission of E.H. Steenbergen and the co-authors of the paper. Copyright 2011, American Institute of Physics.


Viewing GaN nanostructures in 3 dimensions


Individual gallium nitride nanowires as small as 60 nanometres show piezoelectric behaviour in 3D up to six times of that exhibited by bulk GaN


Just 100 nanometres in diameter, nanowires are often considered one-dimensional.


But researchers at Northwestern University have recently reported that individual GaN nanowires show strong piezoelectricity – a type of charge-generation caused by mechanical stress – in three dimensions.


GaN is among the most technologically relevant semiconducting materials and is ubiquitous today in optoelectronic elements such as blue lasers (for example in blue-ray players) and LEDs. More recently, nanogenerators based on GaN nanowires were shown to be capable of converting mechanical energy (such as


234 www.compoundsemiconductor.net January / February 2012 biomechanical motion) to electrical energy.


“Although nanowires are one-dimensional nanostructures, some properties – such as piezoelectricity, the linear form of electro- mechanical coupling – are three-dimensional in nature,” Espinosa said. “We thought these nanowires should show piezoelectricity in 3D, and aimed at obtaining all the piezoelectric constants for individual nanowires, similar to the bulk material.”


The findings revealed that individual GaN nanowires as small as 60 nanometres show piezoelectric behaviour in 3D up to six times of their bulk counterpart. Since the generated charge scales linearly with piezoelectric constants, this finding implies that nanowires are up to six times more efficient in converting mechanical to electrical energy.


To obtain the measurements, researchers applied an electric field in different directions in single nanowire and measured small displacements, often in picometre (10-12 m) range. The group devised a method based on scanning probe microscopy leveraging high- precision displacement measurement capability of an atomic force microscope.


“The measurements were very challenging, since we needed to accurately measure displacements 100 times smaller than the size of the hydrogen atom,” said Majid Minary, a postdoctoral fellow and lead author of the study.


These results are exciting especially considering the recent demonstration of nanogenerators based on GaN nanowires, for powering of self-powered nanodevices.


The findings, led by Horacio Espinosa, James N. and Nancy J. Farley Professor in Manufacturing and Entrepreneurship at the McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, were published in the online paper, “ Individual GaN Nanowires Exhibit Strong Piezoelectricity in 3D”, by Majid Minary- Jolandan et al, in Nano Letters, DOI: 10.1021/


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