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In a recent study, both the oral and intramuscular vaccines induced local and humoral immune responses after challenge, although with different dynamics. The orally- vaccinated group had an earlier local IgA response, with more animals demonstrating a greater CMI response after vaccination and prior to challenge. The intramuscularly vaccinated pigs had stronger IgG antibody response in blood. What are the practical implications? Vaccination is an effective way to boost the immune response and prevent the economic losses caused by ileitis. Oral vaccination induces an early local immunity at the gut level.


5. Gut microbiome disruption affects productivity The gut microbiome is known to influence health and productivity of pigs. The composition of the microbiome changes between different portions of the intestinal tract in swine. Therefore it is important to understand the impact that Li infection on the gut microbiome. One way to do that is by following pigs experimentally infected with Li and analyse changes in the diversity of the gut flora to understand how that impacts colonisation resistance. That has led to the understanding that Li infection increases the susceptibility to Salmonella, probably by reducing the population of butyrate producing commensal bacteria. It has also been shown that previous infection with Li increased the severity of swine dysentery in co-infected pigs. In short: Li is causing disruption to the healthy gut leading to increased severity of other intestinal infections. Lawsonia be- haves like a door opener to other bugs.


6. Lawsonia infection can increase the risk of boar taint Both androsterone and skatole are associated with the un- pleasant odour problem affecting consumer’s acceptance of


pork. Skatole is produced in the gut from tryptophan found in non-digested feed ingredients and dead intestinal cells. Li infection is widespread as we have seen, and results in dam- age to the enterocytes, the cells that line the intestine. Li may be responsible for allowing tryptophan to increase in the hind gut resulting in higher skatole levels. Researchers have found unusually high fat skatole concentrations after dual in- fection with Li and Brachyspira even in castrated boars. In nat- urally infected pigs, Visscher and colleagues showed that sub- clinical Li infection had an impact on butyrate and the skatole concentration in studies using different diets. They conclude that Li vaccination would be a good way to reduce the Li im- pact when investigating ideal diets to avoid excessive skatole.


7. Oral vaccination reduces shedding of Li Li has many effects on the health of the pig gut. The bacteria can change the structure of the intestine, result in reduced nutrient uptake, cause inflammation and reduced local defences. On top, it is clear that Li infection changes the gut microbiome in swine. So it is important to measure the impact of vaccination against ileitis on the healthy gut. The impact on the gut microbiome of oral vaccination (Enterisol Ileitis) after a severe challenge with Li was investigated in a comparison between vaccinated and control pigs. Following the challenge it was shown that the microbiome composition was very different and this difference grew as the infection went on longer. In the vaccinated group there was a significant reduction in shedding of Li. Those results demonstrate that vaccination can have an effect on the gut microbial community and lead to a different microbiome than non- vaccinated and diseased pigs. That change in microbiome composition is likely beneficial as it was associated with a drastic reduction in faecal shedding of Lawsonia.


References available on request ▶ GUT HEALTH | DECEMBER 2020 33


When pigs from infected and naïve flows are co-mingled at the end of the nursery, infected pigs can triple within the population every week.


PHOTO: B.V.D.WENSE


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