search.noResults

search.searching

dataCollection.invalidEmail
note.createNoteMessage

search.noResults

search.searching

orderForm.title

orderForm.productCode
orderForm.description
orderForm.quantity
orderForm.itemPrice
orderForm.price
orderForm.totalPrice
orderForm.deliveryDetails.billingAddress
orderForm.deliveryDetails.deliveryAddress
orderForm.noItems
PHOTO: DUSAN PETKOVIC


How acidifiers improve gut health in pigs


It is common now to see organic acids or simply acidifiers being used as feed additives to replace antibiotic growth promotors. Acidifiers play an important role in pig gut health in many ways.


BY MATTHEW WEDZERAI, FREELANCE CORRESPONDENT T


wo recent studies published in the Journal of Ani- mal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2020), and Animals Journal (2020), give an overview of key benefits of acidifiers in pig gut health. Their research


focused on the benefits of organic acids on pig gut health as exerted through different modes of action in the feed and along the GIT in pigs. The modes of action include reduction of pH and feed buffering capacity, antimicrobial actions, ben- eficial modulation of microflora, the provision of energy, and factors influencing efficacy. Organic acids can be classified into three main functional categories: short chain fatty acids (SCFA), medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), and tricarboxylic ac- ids (TCA). The common MCFA are lauric, capric, caprylic and caproic, while for SCFAs they are acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, and for TCAs they are citric, malic and fumaric. Other than these categories, there are a few organic acids such as benzoic, sorbic, and lactic acid that are widely used in food and feed preservation. Many acids are commonly used as salts of sodium, potassium, or calcium. The benefits of salts are less odour, easy handling during feed manufacture, less corrosive and high solubility in water compared to free acids.


Explaining feed buffering capacity Here, the researchers remain us of the antimicrobial action of organic acids exerted through reduction of pH of the feed (re- ducing the risk of microbial contamination to the animal) and by direct growth inhibition of specific pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella. The addition of organic acids to piglet diets is im- portant since piglets lack the capacity to acidify their stomach content by hydrochloric acid (HCL), and also, gastric pH of pig- lets is kept high by the buffering capacity of the diet. Thus, the pH value in the stomach may stay high (usually pH 4-5) after feeding, leading to sub-optimal protein digestion and unfavour- able pH for killing pathogens. Besides poor production of HCL, piglets lack sufficient lactic acid from lactose fermentation.


The researchers further highlighted that acidifiers improve protein digestion by reducing the buffering capacity of feed. High gastric pH impairs pepsin activation and function (opti- mal under pH 2 to 3.5), reducing the efficiency of protein di- gestion. Improved protein digestion means a healthier gut – undigested fractions that could act as substrate for pathogenic bacterial strains are reduced. This is particularly the case for undigested protein, which is linked to C. perfrin- gens, the bacteria responsible for necrotic enteritis. On the other hand, high pH increases the rate of gastric emptying, reducing the digestion time in the stomach. In addition, vari- ous organic acids (such as citric, formic, fumaric, and lactic acid) reduce environmental excretion of minerals such as cal- cium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc, by improving their absorption and retention. For example, citric acid increases calcium and phosphorus absorption through chelating calci- um; this makes the phytate structure less stable and more ac- cessible to phytase action.


Antimicrobial action The researchers reviewed that although the antimicrobial ac- tivity differ between organic acids, by influencing the pH, most organic acids inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria.


▶ GUT HEALTH | DECEMBER 2020 17


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124