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PHOTO: TROUW NUTRITION


to act as a barrier against Salmonella colonisation. Endogenous microflora are essential for immunological development, especially in early life. Prebiotic components contribute to a resilient microbiota and modulate the host’s immune response. β-1,4-mannobiose supplementation has been shown to prevent Salmonella infection in broilers by increasing production of immunoglobulin A (IgA).


Strengthen gut barrier function Beyond the chemical and microbiological obstacles that Salmo- nella encounter through the GIT, the innate physical barrier associated with the epithelial cell monolayer is also important. Feed management is crucial to maintaining the intestinal barrier’s integrity. Early feed intake, feed quality parameters including hygiene, mycotoxin risk management and texture, and feed quantity can affect gut integrity. Poor management or lax biosecurity can weaken or destroy the gut barrier. The intestinal integrity demands tight junctions and a thick mucus layer. Butyrates have been reported to affect gut barrier function by increasing the formation of mucin glycoproteins and the thickness of the mucous layer. Butyrates also increase the expression of tight junction proteins that improves protection against luminal agents and reduces potential translocation of Salmonella.


Reduce virulence response Salmonella may develop invasive and systemic infections in a small percentage of cases. Generally, Salmonella’s infection potential depends on the ability to encode and express a combination of virulence genes via which the host’s natural defence mechanisms can be bypassed. Most of these virulence genes are clustered in Salmonella pathogenicity islands. Salmonella’s acid tolerance is important to its pathogenesis. Specific short and medium chain fatty acids can also down- regulate Salmonella’s virulence gene expression. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that propionic, butyric and also caproic and caprylic acid alter the gene expression for invasion and virulence. Applied via a slow release matrix, these organic acids can decrease Salmonella colonisation and shedding.


A multifunctional concept within an integrated approach Trouw Nutrition’s global research studies substantiate practical, functional concepts. Fysal Fit-4 is a synergistic blend of ingredients (β-1,4-mannobiose, SCFAs, MCFAs and micro- encapsulated butyrates) that reduces Salmonella colonisation and invasion by empowering natural defence mechanisms. In a recent broiler study using seeder birds infected with S. Heidelberg, effects of water acidification (WA) alone or in combination with Fysal Fit-4 were tested. On day 7, 4 days after infected seeders were included in pens, both treatment groups (WA alone and WA in combination with Fysal Fit-4) showed significantly lower caecal Salmonella counts in non-seeder


birds compared to the control group (-log 1.02 CFU/g and -log 2.36 CFU/g; p <0.0001). On day 14, 11 days after the inclusion of infected seeders, caecal Salmonella counts in non-seeder birds were still reduced by log 1.0 CFU/g but only in birds receiving the combination treatment (Figure 2). This shows that an efficient Salmonella control concept should go beyond feed and water acidification to empower natural defence mechanisms in the gut. Feed and water additives, vaccination and medication programmes can all contribute to reduced Salmonella pressure when supported by proper risk analysis, a solid sampling and analysis plan and best hygiene practices. This is the essence of Trouw Nutrition’s integrated feed, farm and health approach for reducing Salmonella pressure across the supply chain.


References available upon request


Figure 2 - Salmonella Heidelberg counts (log CFU/g) in caeca ages.


Control a


 


a b b c


5.93 4.91 day 7


3.57  5.30 5.19 day 14 4.31


a


25


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