74 CHAPTER 4 Table 4.1 Height-for-age z-score

Explanatory variable Nurse × age

Community health worker × age Traditional birth attendant × age Weight-for-age z-score Age 8 years Age 9 years Age 10 years Age 11 years

0.2434 (0.54)

–1.9111 (2.56)

–0.8080 (1.67)

–0.1691 (0.30)

Household fixed effects F-statistic (all variables)

Yes 2.88 3.55

(p-value) (0.0171) Within-household R2

0.1828

Number of children Number of households

199 88

(1)

–0.2921 (1.54)

0.8950 (2.84)

0.2360 (1.70)

0.3546 (2.59)

0.4288 (0.96)

–0.6920 (1.64)

–0.3939 (0.95)

0.2061 (0.39)

Female 0.1526 0.0114 (0.52)

(0.04) Yes

3.15

(p-value) (0.0062) (0.0071) F-statistic (identifying instrumental variable)

0.1524

199 88

Sources: South African Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town (1994); University of KwaZulu-Natal / International Food Policy Research Institute / University of Wisconsin–Madison (1998, 2004).

Notes: The dependent variable is height-for-age z-score. Numbers in parentheses are absolute t-values. Estimation with household fixed effects uses children from households with multiple siblings. Specification includes over-age and under-age indicators for reported age in 1998. Sample consists of children aged 1–5 years in 1998, with consistent ages between 1998 and 2004, and height-for-age z-score in the range –6 to 6 in 1993. Age 7 years is omitted.

That year, compared with the current age in 2004, tells us the age at which the child started attending primary school.11

Table 4.2 reports the descriptive statistics of schooling outcome variables: age started school, the highest grade completed, and the cumulative number of grades repeated. First, the age started school increases as the current age

11 In the principal analysis, we use only observations for which the estimated age schooling started was greater or equal to 4 years, restricting the sample to children who were aged less than 4 years.

t-value above (2)

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