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76 PRESERVATIVES CHALLENGE TEST RESULTS


Eliminates all bacteria and yeast after 2 days, and moulds after 14 days


0.1% Cosphaderm® Zinc Lactate natural Tested in micellar water pH 5.5


1000000 100000 10000 1000 100 10 1


0 2 7 14 Figure 3: Challenge test results of 0.1 % Cosphaderm® Zinc Lactete natural tested in micellar water. CHALLENGE TEST RESULTS


Eliminates all bacteria and yeast after 7 days and moulds after 28 days


0.7% Cosphaderm® Dicapo natural Tested in day cream at pH 6.5


1000000 100000 10000 1000 100 10 1


0 2 7 14


Figure 4: Challenge test results of 0.7 % Cosphaderm® Dicapo natural tested in day cream. One new and highly interesting


multifunctional is Cosphaderm® Zinc lactate natural. Zinc lactate is the zinc salt of lactic acid (Fig 1). Zinc is a well-known antimicrobial. Often,


you can find it in wound-healing creams but zinc offers much more positive functions (Fig 2): It inhibits enzymes that produce free


radicals and inflammatory mediators. It is also able to reduce the odour that is caused by microorganisms of the skin; thus, it is an excellent active agent for deodorants. Zinc lactate has a neutral taste and shows a bacteriostatic effect. Additionally, it prevents dental plaque, gingivitis and stops tartar growths. This substance can also reduce mouth odour because it inhibits bacteria that produces volatile sulphur compounds. Besides this, it acts as an anti-acne and dandruff agent due to its disruption of the cell equilibrium of acne- and odour-causing germs. Moreover, it can be used as an anti-ageing and anti-pigmentation active. Lactic acid is a part of the natural moisturising factor (NMF) of human skin cells, and it can be used for exfoliation because it helps to remove dead skin cells from the skin surface. With respect to the antimicrobial efficiency


PERSONAL CARE July 2021


28 E.coli ■ P. aeruginosa ■ S. aureus ■ C. albicans ■ A. brasiliensis ■


28 E.coli ■ P. aeruginosa ■ S. aureus ■ C. albicans ■ A. brasiliensis ■


against E. coli. S. aureus. P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and A. brasiliensis, zinc is able to counterbalance the low efficiency of lactic acid at higher pH values. In some formulations 1 % Cosphaderm® Zinc lactate natural yields an excellent challenge test rating (Fig 3). In most formulations a booster increases the efficiency a lot. Suitable partners are diols (like Cosphaderm Pentiol natural) or esters (like Cosphaderm GMCY). Another example of a smart combination of


natural antimicrobials is Cosphaderm Dicapo natural. This blend consists of natural and GMO-free propanediol, glyceryl caprylate (Cosphaderm GMCY) and natural caprylyl glycol (Cosphaderm Octiol). Propanediol is an excellent humectant for the skin, whereas Cosphaderm GMCY and Cosphaderm Octiol are well known for their hair- and skin-conditioning properties. The combination is highly efficient, and often 0.7 % is enough for excellent challenge test results (Figs 4, 5). Bearing in mind that the probabilities of


increasing the efficiency of antimicrobials are higher by combining two substances with different modes of action, it is important to understand first how they even work. The next


paragraphs will provide guidance regarding the most commonly used groups and some famous representatives in order to illustrate more their mode of action. The different modes of action as related to their categorisation of antimicrobials:


Organic acids The group of organic acids, known for preservative action, has been known for decades and is still very popular. Benzoic acid and sorbic acid are two famous examples. Besides these popular candidates, less conventional acids have emerged in recent years and studies proved their antimicrobial properties. Often, they are derived from natural extracts. Typical examples of naturally occurring antimicrobial acids are: ■ Ferulic - Anisic - Cinnamic - Capric ■ Caffeic - Coumaric - Lauric - Vanillic ■ Usnic - Caprylic - Levulinic The mode of action is similar. They reduce


the intracellular pH value of germs, which finally results in their cell death. Not all of them are suitable for cosmetic preservation. Some of them have a strong and characteristic colour or odour, others show a low water solubility


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Cfu (log scale)


Cfu (log scale)


Days


Days


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