100 98 95 93 90


Figure 2: Stabilities of ascorbic acid (AsA), ascorbyl glucoside (AA2G), ascorbyl phosphate (AP, trisodium ascorbyl palmitate phosphate (APPS) and 2-O-glyceryl-3-O-octyl ascorbate (GO-VC).

1400000 1050000 700000 350000 0

Without GO-VC With GO-VC

Figure 3: Effect of 2-O-glyceryl-3-O-octyl ascorbate (GO-VC) on the porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus.

Antioxidant effect, chlorine-removal effect, and antibacterial / antiviral effect

When the antioxidant effect of GO-VC was evaluated, GO-VC had a low immediate antioxidant effect, but had a higher sustained antioxidant effect than AP and APPS. In other words, it is no exaggeration to say that GO-VC is a long-life-antioxidant. Also, contrary to the antioxidant effect, AsA and AsA derivatives can be converted into AsA radicals that can adversely affect the skin, but GO-VC has been confirmed not to be changed easily into AsA radicals in the longer term than AP and APPS. In addition, GO-VC also has the effect of

removing chlorine contained in tap water, and it has been confirmed that GO-VC actually suppresses hair damage caused by chlorine. Furthermore, since GO-VC is bound to octanol, it is expected to have antibacterial activity, and it has been confirmed that it actually exhibits antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida. In addition, GO-VC is also known to have an antiviral effect, and has been confirmed to show an inactivating effect of 90% or more against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus after 15 minutes of contact (Fig 3). Summarising the skin physiological effects

of GO-VC so far, GO-VC has been confirmed to show a long-lasting antioxidant effect, chlorine removal effect, antibacterial / antiviral


effects. Therefore, GO-VC is suitable not only for anti-ageing preparations but also for blending into wash-off products such as facial cleansers for the purpose of suppressing skin damage caused by chlorine in tap water. In addition, GO-VC is recommended to be added to disinfectant preparations such as alcohol- based hand sanitisers because it enhances antibacterial and antiviral effects.

Epidermal barrier function- reinforcing effect In order to examine the epidermal barrier function-reinforcing effect of GO-VC, the behaviour of the skin surface water content (SWC) and trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) after applying GO-VC to the skin was measured. As a result, GO-VC increased SWC and decreased TEWL (Fig 4). Therefore, GO-VC could strengthen the epidermal barrier function. Then, by what mechanism does GO-VC

strengthen the epidermal barrier function? In order to elucidate the action mechanism of GO-VC’s epidermal barrier function-reinforcing effect, we focused on tight junctions (TJ) existing in the epidermal granular layer. TJ is one of the cell adhesion apparatuses composed of several proteins, and the important function of TJ is recognised as barrier function that prevents the penetration of low molecular weight compounds and metal ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ below the stratum

spinosum of the epidermis. In addition, TJ is also known to play a role in preventing the evaporation of water from the epidermis. Therefore, we examined the effect of GO-VC on TJ. As a result, GO-VC increased the gene and protein expression level of TJ-member proteins. Therefore, GO-VC could reinforce the epidermal barrier function by enhancing the biosynthesis of TJ-member proteins, resulting in the suppression of the skin dryness. Alcohol disinfection is now indispensable

for daily life since COVID-19, but it has been pointed out that rough hands and dryness are accompanied by deterioration of the epidermal barrier function due to alcohol disinfection. In recent years, the rough skin caused by the mask has also increased rapidly, which is considered to be due to the deterioration of the skin barrier function due to the rubbing between the skin and the mask. Furthermore, when the mask is removed, the water vapour in the mask evaporates, and the moisture of the skin also evaporates, so that the skin becomes dry. Therefore, it is important to apply a moisturiser diligently. In particular, suppressing the deterioration of the skin barrier function and suppressing the dryness of the skin leads to the prevention of rough skin caused by the mask. As mentioned above, GO-VC has an epidermal barrier function-enhancing effect, so it is considered that hand cream containing GO-VC is suitable for preventing rough hands and dryness after alcohol disinfection. In addition, skin care products such as lotions, serums, milky lotions, and creams containing GO-VC are suitable for preventing rough skin with masks.

Anti-acne effect, anti-wrinkle effect, and skin-lightening effect Many clinical trials of GO-VC have been conducted by doctors, and anti-acne effect, anti-wrinkle effect and skin-lightening effect have been confirmed. The action mechanism of the anti-acne effect of GO-VC includes a sustained antioxidant effect and an effect of suppressing the growth of propionibacterium acnes that cause acne. Indeed, GO-VC has been confirmed to show a higher effect of suppressing the growth of propionibacterium acnes than paraben and octanol. Therefore, GO-VC could show an anti-acne effect by an action mechanism different from that of conventional AsA derivatives. In addition, as the action mechanism of

the anti-wrinkle effect, AsA and conventional AsA derivatives have been reported to promote dermal fibroblast proliferation and type I collagen production, and GO-VC has been also confirmed to have the same effect. Furthermore, GO-VC has been confirmed to enhance the gene expression level of the hyaluronan synthase HAS2. Therefore, GO-VC could promote the production of hyaluronic acid, and this hyaluronic acid-producing ability is also considered to contribute to the improvement of wrinkles. Regarding the skin-lightening effect,

GO-VC has been confirmed to suppress melanin production at a lower concentration than arbutin. A detailed study of its action

Virus titer (TCID 50 /mL) Residual rate (%)

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