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modern humans did undertake maritime activities (e.g. Johnstone 1980; Lourandos 1997). The resources required to construct simple watercraft, such as hide-covered log or boat rafts, would have been available during this period and it has been postulated that late Upper Palaeolithic communities utilised such craft for coastal journeying and fishing (McGrail 1987, 2004).


23. During the Mesolithic, patterns of human settlement associated with rivers and coastal environments suggest the likely use of watercraft for fishing and transport although, as for the Palaeolithic, the lack of available evidence means that the nature of these maritime activities remain unclear. Archaeological discoveries of Mesolithic logboats (e.g. McGrail 2004:174) attests to the ability of Mesolithic communities to construct watercraft and it is likely that rafts and hide boats would also have been used. Unfortunately, their light construction makes it less likely that they would survive in the archaeological record.


24.


By the Mesolithic it is probable that the East Anglia THREE site was already submerged although areas that were coastal or nearshore at this time, particularly those associated with river inlets, are a likely context for the discovery of the remains of early maritime activities. The extensive deposition of Holocene alluvium associated with the fairly rapid post-Devensian rise in sea level may have concealed the remains of the early prehistoric watercraft that are currently missing from the archaeological record.


25.


The Early Ships and Boats project (Wessex Archaeology 2013) states that within England’s wreck resource, just 19 records exist with a date range that falls within the Early Prehistoric Period (Palaeolithic to Mesolithic). These records comprise 18 logobats and one findspot; none have been scientifically dated or identified as surviving in archaeological contexts (Wessex Archaeology 2013:33). This highlights the potential importance and historical value of remains of watercraft dating to this period should they be discovered within the Study Area.


26. During the Neolithic and early Bronze Age (4,000 to 700 BC) the coastline in the East Coast region would have attained a form similar to that of today. The movement of goods across the sea is demonstrated by the introduction into the UK of non-native species of livestock and cereals (May 1976) and the discovery of porcellanite stone axes from Ireland, on the UK mainland, and the Western Isles of Scotland (Breen and Forsythe 2004:32). The discovery of deep water fish in shell middens at Neolithic sites demonstrates that marine fishing was being carried out at this time (Ellmers 1996).


Preliminary Environmental Information May 2014


East Anglia THREE Offshore Windfarm


Appendix 17.1 Potential Archaeological Receptors


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