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motor vessel Foka Gas I in 1991. Only remains of this period with unusual or specific potential to further understanding are likely to be regarded of special interest.


1.4 Aviation


1.4.1 Introduction 73. A guidance note published by English Heritage (EH) entitled Military Aircraft Crash Sites (English Heritage 2002) outlined a case for recognising the importance of aircraft crash sites, specifically with regard to existing and planned development proposals which may have an impact on such sites. The guidance note argues that aircraft crash sites not only have significance for remembrance and commemoration, but they also have an implicit cultural value as historic artefacts, providing information on the aircraft itself and also the circumstances of its loss (English Heritage 2002:2). All aircraft that crashed while in military service are automatically protected under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986.


74.


Site survival is largely determined by the cause of loss. With a few exceptions, aircraft come to be on the sea bed as a result of an in-flight accident or enemy action and remains are often highly fragmented and widely dispersed as a result of mid-air explosion or the high impact of hitting the water at speed. Aircraft which come to rest on the sea bed as a result of controlled ditching are more likely to be better preserved. The factors which determine the survival of an aircraft crash site are not yet fully understood although marine environments generally offer favourable conditions for the preservation of artefacts, enhancing the potential for the survival of aircraft crash sites on the sea bed.


75.


This potential for, and the nature of, aviation receptors that may be present within the Study Area is discussed below.


1.4.2 Pre-1939 76.


Fixed wing-aviation first began in the early 1900s in the UK, with the first flight across the English Channel in 1909. This early period was characterised by the intense and rapid development of a new technology, from the advent of powered flight to the outbreak of WWII. At least 119 different aircraft models were used by the military in the UK during this period but examples of only 24 survive today anywhere in the world. This, alongside the fragility of the airframes and the relative scarcity of flights over water mean that any aircraft remains dating to this period will be of special interest.


77.


There are no known or charted aircraft or documented losses dating to this phase within the Study Area.


Preliminary Environmental Information May 2014


East Anglia THREE Offshore Windfarm


Appendix 17.1 Potential Archaeological Receptors


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