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31. A significant number of the vessels involved in these movements are likely to have passed through the East Anglia THREE site and offshore cable corridor. Trading ports were active on the Suffolk and Norfolk coast and the Roman military establishment made extensive use of the East Anglian coastal waters, transporting goods from garrison to garrison (Rippon 2008:86). Caister-on-Sea, for example, provided a clear entry port to the rich farmlands of East Anglia and offered the shortest sea crossing to the mouth of the Rhine.


32.


The recorded remains of vessels from this period continue to be rare despite the growth of seafaring activity and the wide range of ocean-going vessels indicated to have been in use in contemporary accounts. The Early Ships and Boats project revealed a total of 34 records within England’s wreck resource with a date range that falls within the Roman period, comprising two designated wrecks, 23 logboats, five findspots and four undesignated wrecks (Wessex Archaeology 2013:34). None of the 23 logboats were identified as surviving in an archaeological context.


33.


The ‘Dark Ages’ which succeeded the Roman occupation of Britain saw the migration of Saxon, and later Norse and Danish, settlers into Britain which brought both renewed expansion of trade routes and new shipbuilding traditions. A network of Saxon trade and migration routes existed in the southern North Sea, with a number of important ports or landing places along the East Anglian coast. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Saxon leader Cerdic landed at the shore close to Great Yarmouth in AD 495 (Online Medieval and Classical Library) and Dunwich (Dumnoc) is listed as a port in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 636 (Comfort 1994:5).


34.


There are several archaeological examples of Saxon boats in Suffolk including the clinker built Ashby Dell (Suffolk HER - HRF 012) and Sutton Hoo (Suffolk HER – SUT 004, 005, 038) boat burials. The clinker technique, fastening overlapping planks together to form the hull, was a specifically north European technique which found its best known expression in the Viking ship traditions of the later 8th and 9th centuries.


35.


The potential for discoveries of this date from offshore contexts is demonstrated by a 16ft logboat “landed” while fishing off Covehithe in 1998 by a Dunwich fisherman (Suffolk HER – COV Misc). The boat was radiocarbon date to 775 to 892 AD. It has been suggested that this may have been eroded from Benacre, Covehithe or Easton Bavents Broad (Good and Plouviez 2007).


36.


Viking raids on the eastern British coast began in the 8th century and during the subsequent period of Viking settlement the North Sea continued to act as a communication, trade and migration route to the Scandinavian home countries with


Preliminary Environmental Information May 2014


East Anglia THREE Offshore Windfarm


Appendix 17.1 Potential Archaeological Receptors


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