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their form and distribution, and it is possible that they generally fill topographically controlled depressions within the eroded upper surface of YM.


116. These features are characterised by a generally well-defined, low relief basal reflector and fill comprising numerous sub-parallel internal reflectors. In some areas a secondary upper fill is identified, which is acoustically transparent (Figure 17.5). Borehole information from within a similar feature in East Anglia Four indicates the lower fill comprises sandy silt, and the upper fill silty fine sand.


117. The age of these features is uncertain, and they could belong to one of two BGS formations: either the Eem Formation (EE) or a lower unit of the Brown Bank Formation (BNB, which is present across most of the site and is described below). EE is Ipswichian in age, and is described as a shallow marine/intertidal deposit of shelly and muddy sands, whilst BNB is a lagoon deposit of Lower Devensian Age (Cameron et al. 1992). The features identified here could represent a gradual transition between EE and BNB, and be Upper Ipswichian or Lower Devensian in age (MIS 5e - 5d).


118. The archaeological potential of these features depends on their age. As a marine deposit, the archaeological potential of EE is considered relatively low, though the unit may cover and protect earlier land surfaces. The potential of BNB is interpreted to be higher, with the possibility of derived artefacts and intact organic material of palaeoenvironmental interest. However, human absence in the area during the development of the Lower BNB indicates the unit is unlikely to contain in situ artefacts. Further work would need to be undertaken to determine the precise age of these Lower Brown Bank Formation / Eem Formation infilled depressions.


119. Situated above these features is a blanket deposit of BNB, present across the whole of East Anglia Three. This unit is characterised by poorly defined sub-horizontal internal reflectors, and has been found by boreholing to comprise silty clay and clayey silt, with an occasional upper layer of cleaner loose silt. As previously mentioned, this is interpreted as being a Lower Devensian (MIS 5d - 3) lagoon deposit. Dating of similar upper BNB sediments to the east indicate that the infill continued into the late Devensian (MIS 3) during the period of human re-occupation (Limpenny et al. 2011).


120. The archaeological potential of this unit is variable, with in situ and derived artefacts possible where the unit forms channel features. However, no such features have been identified within East Anglia Three, besides the Lower Brown Bank Formation/Eem Formation features described previously, and so the potential for this blanket deposit is thought to be lower.


Preliminary Environmental Information May 2014 East Anglia THREE Offshore Windfarm Appendix 17.2 Archaeological Review of


Geophysical and Geotechnical Data: Technical Report


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