This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
78.


Early aircraft were constructed of canvas covered wooden frames and were extremely fragile, and it was not uncommon for such an aircraft to break up in flight. The regular use of aircraft over the battlefields of the Western Front by the end of WWI, however, prompted the mass-production of fixed wing aircraft in large numbers, spurring technological advances in aircraft design.


79. A total of 28 fixed wing aircraft and 15 airships were lost by the German Imperial Air Service and Navy during raids on the UK mainland during WWI (Wessex Archaeology 2009:65) and a further 34 aircraft from the British Home Defence Squadrons are also recorded to have been lost during this period (Holyoak 2002:659). It is possible that some of these losses occurred at sea, particularly within regions that attracted intense aircraft hostility such as the East Coast.


80.


By the outbreak of WWII, low-powered wood and cloth biplanes had been replaced by high-powered monoplanes made of aluminium (Wessex Archaeology 2009:65). Civil aviation also increased significantly during the 1920s and 1930s, with over-seas services established to a number of European and worldwide destinations (Wessex Archaeology 2009:16). The Department of Transport’s Air Accident Investigation Branch (AAIB) records 20 civil aircraft losses at sea between 1920 and 1939, though this is not regarded as being a comprehensive record (Wessex Archaeology 2009:65).


81.


Pre-1939 aircraft crash sites at sea are likely to be relatively rare, and the lightweight construction of the earlier airframes means that they are less likely to survive within the marine environment unless buried within sea bed sediments. Any early aircraft crash sites from this period are likely to be very important if discovered.


1.4.3 1939-1945 82.


This period is characterised by technological innovations which extended the reliability and range of aircraft and the deployment of aircraft as a key strategy during WWII. This period also saw the highest number of aircraft and associated human casualties in the history of aviation and, as such, has special significance.


83. During WWII airpower became increasingly important at a strategic and operational level. Forming the frontier between the Allies and Axis, the North Sea became a significant focus for a high volume of aviation activity in WWII with hostile aircraft activity particularly concentrated off the east and south coasts of England (Wessex Archaeology 2008b:16). During the Blitz Great Yarmouth suffered more bombing than any other coastal town in the country.


84.


The loss of aircraft from both sides during the war was immense and it is estimated that an average of five aircraft crashed every day between 1939 and 1945


Preliminary Environmental Information May 2014


East Anglia THREE Offshore Windfarm


Appendix 17.1 Potential Archaeological Receptors


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156  |  Page 157  |  Page 158  |  Page 159  |  Page 160  |  Page 161  |  Page 162  |  Page 163  |  Page 164  |  Page 165  |  Page 166  |  Page 167  |  Page 168  |  Page 169  |  Page 170  |  Page 171  |  Page 172  |  Page 173  |  Page 174  |  Page 175  |  Page 176  |  Page 177  |  Page 178  |  Page 179  |  Page 180  |  Page 181  |  Page 182  |  Page 183  |  Page 184  |  Page 185  |  Page 186  |  Page 187  |  Page 188  |  Page 189  |  Page 190  |  Page 191  |  Page 192  |  Page 193  |  Page 194  |  Page 195  |  Page 196  |  Page 197  |  Page 198  |  Page 199  |  Page 200  |  Page 201  |  Page 202  |  Page 203  |  Page 204  |  Page 205