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110. The Channel Features are interpreted as being possibly fluvial in origin, though their age is difficult to determine. The features are observed cutting into the upper layers of YM, and, since YM is often characterised by cross cutting channels, the Channel Features could be part of this internal structure (MIS >13). However, most of the Channel Features appear different in character to those generally observed within YM, and so could have originated at a later date.


111. The precise southern extent of ice during the Anglian Glaciation is uncertain (Limpenny et al. 2011), though it is likely that during this period (following the deposition if YM) the East Anglia Three area would have been covered by ice. Therefore, if the Channel Features do not date from the Pre-Anglian they possibly date sometime between the Late Anglian glacial retreat and the Ipswichian (MIS 12 - 5e), within which were numerous global temperature fluctuations and alternating cold and warm periods.


112. This is a relatively broad date range for the Channel Features, which makes their archaeological potential uncertain. However, there were periods of human occupation of the UK within the interpreted date range, and so the potential remains for in situ and derived archaeological artefacts and palaeoenvironmental material to be associated with the Channel Features, though the confidence of this interpretation will remain relatively low until the date of the features can be better determined.


113. Directly overlying the YM/Channel Features in some areas of the site is what here is called the Sand Unit. This is an acoustically transparent unit with a generally well defined base (usually being the eroded top of YM), and is often associated with the later Lower Brown Bank/Eem Formation features (described below), the boundary between which is often uncertain and may be gradational (Figure 17.5).


114. The Sand Unit has not been sampled by boreholes, though the acoustic character suggests it is a large sand deposit. The age of the unit is also uncertain, though it is interpreted as being Pre-Devensian. Due to the interpreted sandy lithology, which is unlikely to preserve organic material, and the uncertainty of the age of the unit, the Sand Unit is not interpreted to have archaeological potential. As such, no features from within this unit have been mapped.


115. Generally associated with the Sand Unit (though not exclusively) is a series of large infilled depressions, the largest of which are features 75490, 75499 and 75543 (see Appendix 17.3 for full list) (Figure 17.2). These largest features all trend approximately NNW - SSE, suggesting there is some regional underlying control on


Preliminary Environmental Information May 2014 East Anglia THREE Offshore Windfarm Appendix 17.2 Archaeological Review of


Geophysical and Geotechnical Data: Technical Report


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