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89. Direct evidence for aircraft within the offshore East Anglian region is provided by a number of aircraft remains reported through the Marine Aggregates Protocol for Reporting Finds of Archaeological Interest including a large quantity of aluminium wreckage from WWII, some of which is identifiable with a particular make of aircraft.


90.


In 2007 a number of aircraft fragments were discovered with a human arm bone at Ridham Wharf near Sittingbourne, Kent, and reported to WA through the Marine Aggregate Industry Protocol for the Reporting of Finds of Archaeological Interest (formally the BMAPA Protocol) (Wessex Archaeology 2007). The discovery came from dredging area 430 which lies less the 1km to the north of the central extent of the East Anglia THREE offshore cable corridor. Following specialist assessment, desk based research and analysis of the area through geophysical survey the remains were interpreted to be part of a single crash site, most likely of a Junkers Ju 88, a WWII German Luftwaffe twin-engine, multi-role aircraft. The aircraft is most likely to have crashed during the second half of August 1940 during the Battle of Britain. A temporary exclusion zone was established around the site and continues to prohibit dredging within the area of the discovery. A number of additional aircraft finds have also been found in the East Coast dredging region, c. 18km north-west of the East Anglia THREE offshore cable corridor, including fragments of a fuselage from a Supermarine Spitfire, a possible WWII hydraulic jack and an aircraft fuel gauge Manufactured by a company which developed fuses and aircraft instruments throughout both world wars, as well as a number of unidentified aluminium fragments thought to derive from aircraft.


91.


This evidence demonstrates a very high potential for the presence of WWII aircraft remains to exist within the East Anglia THREE site and offshore cable corridor. As outlined above, all aircraft that crashed while in military service are automatically protected under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986. All remains of aircraft from this date will be of high importance.


1.4.4 1945-Present 92.


From the end of WWII until the early 1990s, military aviation activity was dominated by the Cold War. During this period, aircraft research, design and development further increased to the benefit of both the military and commercial sector. Developments in aerospace engineering, a term coined in 1958 to encompass aircraft and spacecraft technology, saw the refinement of the jet engine which in turn enabled the production of the jet aircraft. The jet aircraft was much faster than its propeller-powered predecessors and was able to attain a greater altitude, providing maximum efficiency over long distances (Jarrett 2000).


Preliminary Environmental Information May 2014


East Anglia THREE Offshore Windfarm


Appendix 17.1 Potential Archaeological Receptors


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