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9.


The substantial, mixed assemblage of handaxes also recovered from Area 240 may be of older Lower Palaeolithic origin (e.g. >MIS 9) or may date to the Later Middle Palaeolithic when technologically similar artefacts were made (c. MIS 3) (Boismier et al. 2012).


10. During, MIS 6 the Weald-Artois ridge was finally breached creating the Dover Strait (Toucanne et al. 2009), occurring within a trend towards increasingly restricted access to Britain (Ashton et al. 2011, Scott and Ashton 2011). Palaeogeographically, Area 240 is one of the most northerly Neanderthal sites in northwest Europe and of primary archaeological importance for defining Middle Palaeolithic potential and the contemporary palaeogeography across the southern North Sea basin (Tizzard et al. 2014).


11.


Currently there is no definitive evidence of a hominin presence in Britain during MIS 5 (Lewis et al. 2011). Within the context of early prehistory and submerged palaeogeography however, substantial areas of the southern North Sea basin would have been dry land during the warming and cooling limbs of the various sub-stages (MIS 5a-e), therefore potential exists for human activity to have occurred in Doggerland. Offshore locations may be the only source for testing this hypothesis (Wessex Archaeology 2013b); the western European archaeological record is rich in comparison for MIS 5 (Lewis et al. 2011, Pettitt and White 2012).


1.2.4 Late Middle Palaeolithic (MIS 3; c. 60 kBP) 12. Again, East Anglia provides early evidence for Neanderthal recolonisation of Britain after the hiatus between MIS 6-4, around 60 kBP. The Lynford Quarry material highlights a new lithic technology visually similar to Lower Palaeolithic Acheulean lithics, so-called Mousterian of Acheulean Tradition (MTA) handaxes and tools (Boismier et al. 2012). Climatically MIS 3 was significantly colder than now but did not attain the glacial conditions of later or earlier glacials (e.g. MIS 6 or 2) (Pettitt and White 2012). For the Neanderthals that may occupied the region at this time, surviving in Doggerland during this period may have been subject to a variety of technological and cultural adaptations (White 2006).


13.


Recent analysis suggests Neanderthals died out in Britain around 42,000 years ago, with modern Humans arriving around 34,000 years ago (Jacobi and Higham 2011).


1.2.5 Upper Palaeolithic (MIS 3 – 2; 34,000 – 10,500 BP) 14.


The Upper Palaeolithic straddles the Devensian glaciation with a hiatus in human activity in Britain between 24 – 15 k BP (Pettitt and White 2012, Jacobi and Higham 2011). Recent analysis has suggested that eight relatively brief phases of human


Preliminary Environmental Information May 2014


East Anglia THREE Offshore Windfarm


Appendix 17.1 Potential Archaeological Receptors


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