This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
NorthAmericanPower
Some vendors dealingwiththenuancesofintraandinter-ISO/RTOactivityis
have marketed their verytimeandresourceconsuming.Someofthespecificareasin
solutions as ‘integrated,’ whichchallengesaregreatestinclude:
but the reality is that the

e-Tags. What started out as a standardised high-level
integrationhasbeen,atbest,partial communication protocol framework for the inter-region
with the information flow between movement of physical power on the North American grid
ETRM and scheduling systems being has metamorphosed into something quite different: An
largelyoneway.Butoverrecentmonths,OpenLink electronictagwithinwhicheachISOhasembeddeditsown
and MCG Energy Solutions have been working hard to meet specific market rules. What’s more, regional requirements
the challenge of creating a truly integrated solution for the evolve over time. This can represent something of an
North American power market. The result is a solution that operational nightmare for market participants, who have
seamlessly integrates OpenLink’s cutting-edge ETRM to operate under tight time constraints. Failure to embed
technology with MCG Energy Solutions’ state of the art the right market communication data into the e-Tag and
schedulingsystem. gainapprovalforthee-Tagfromalltheotherparticipants
involvedinthetransactionbeforeastrictdeadline(say,20
Layers of Complexity minutes prior to the when the power is due to flow) will
Beforegoingontoconsiderhowthisnewsolutionwillfulfill cause the ISO to not approve the e-Tag and associated
the pressing need in the North American power market for a transaction. Once the power is flowing, participants
truly integrated approach to trading, risk management and involved in the transaction have to monitor the e-Tag in
logistics, it is instructive to survey the intricacies and casethereissomekindofdisruptionsuchasatransmission
challengesthatmarketparticipantshavetograpplewithevery line or generator going down, or a change in volume
day. In some ways, there are more differences between the required by the buyer. Reacting effectively and quickly in
electricity markets within each state in the US than there are suchadynamicenvironmentisachallengewithoutready
between each individual national market within Europe. The access to real-time data and a system that is able to
USpowergridishighlyregionalisedintermsofitsarchitecture, managereal-timeschedulechanges.
as exemplified by the division between the ‘western’ and
‘eastern’ power markets, and the more localised markets that

ISO Connectivity. The applications and technologies for
existwithineachofthesetwoseparatemajorinterconnections communicating bids, offers and settlement is unique for
on either side of the Rocky Mountains. This level of eachISO,andeachISOdoesnotprovidetestsystemsand
fragmentationcanbeespeciallyproblematicforentitieswhose software for vendors to work with directly. This has
activityspansseveralmarketssincetherulesformovingpower certainlyhamperedthedevelopmentofeffectivesolutions.
physicallyinoroutofeachmarketalsovaries. While ISOs don’t change application interfaces around
There are two broad categories of markets: Regions with bids,offersandgenerationdispatchsignalswithoutgiving
traditional,utility-basedBalancingAuthoritieswhereautility, proper notice, the same cannot necessarily be said of the
ineffect,performsallofthevariousmarketparticipantrolesin data feeds used in pricing and settlement. And while a
terms of generation, transmission and distribution; and shutdownorreformattingofadatafeedwon’tputastopto
regional power markets that are managed by Independent tradingactivity,itcanhaveadeleteriouseffectonriskand
System Operators and Regional Transmission Organizations performanceanalysis.
(ISO/RTOs).
There are 10 ISO/RTOs that serve around two thirds of

Capacity/transport. Within the e-Tag that allows a
electricityconsumersintheUSandmorethanhalfofCanada’s participanttoflowpoweronthegrid,akeycomponentof
population.Whilethemissionoftheseentitiesisasharedone the included data is associated with a transmission
– to facilitate and ensure power supplies are distributed reservationrequest.Essentially,thiscomponent(knownas
efficiently,reliablyandfairly–theprocesses,requirementsand anOpenAccessSame-TimeInformationSystem,orOASIS
rulesthatmustbeputinplacetoachievethisvarygreatly,and reservation) creates a request for a transmission contract
areofteninastateofflux. thatconveystherighttomovepoweratacertainlevelof
For the power generating companies (gencos), power interruptibility,foracertaintimeperiod,andatacertain
distributors (often referred to as LSEs) and the marketers, capacity–onoroff-peak.
worldPower2009 85
Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156  |  Page 157  |  Page 158  |  Page 159  |  Page 160  |  Page 161  |  Page 162  |  Page 163  |  Page 164
Produced with Yudu - www.yudu.com