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Carbon Capture & Storage
oncurrenttechnologieswouldresultinanefficiencypenaltyof capture technologies this means that efficiency and associated
8 - 13% for coal-fired generation or 9 - 12% for gas-fired. This cost penalties for CO
2
capture will be lower for future plants.
includes about 3 - 4% in coal-fired installations or 2 - 3% in Lower efficiencies increase the plant’s consumption of fuel
gas-fired plants for compression of CO
2
to the desired storage per kWh of output and, together with higher equipment costs,
pressure (about 100 bar). The remainder is related to the this results in higher electricity production costs. Further
capture process. The cost penalty is estimated to be in the development and improvement of conventional power
range of €10-50/MWh. However, this estimate varies generation technologies can achieve the same benefits since
considerably between different studies. higher power generation efficiencies reduce the volume of CO
2
needing to be captured and thus decrease the efficiency and
Costs cost penalty associated with CO
2
capture.
Numerous studies of the three capture principles above Generally, the impact of costs for CCS on the price of
have been made with regard to calculating the cost of electricity is difficult to estimate as the technology is not
electricityandcorrespondingavoidancecostofCO
2
captureto commercially mature yet and its application is currently rather
a modern, high efficiency power plant reduces the quantities limited. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
of CO
2
needing to be captured when compared with low (IPCC) estimated in 2005 that the introduction of CCS in power
efficiency plant. Consequently, the efficiency and cost plantswouldresultinanincreaseinelectricitygenerationcosts
penalties for capturing CO
2
will be smaller for the high of US$0.01–0.05/kWh, depending on fuel, technology, location
efficiency plant. On the other hand, coal, which produces and other relevant factors. Capture costs were estimated to
higher amounts of CO
2
, will give a lower cost per tonne of rangefromUS$15–75/tonneCO
2
,transportfromUS$1–8/tonne
CO
2
avoided if other costs are equal. and geological storage from
Since a substantial part of the cost
... efficiency & associated cost
US$0.5–8/tonne.InEurope,theestimates
stems from the energy consumption of
penalties for CO
of the CO
the capture process, capture cost is also
2
capture will
2
abatement costs using CCS
dependent upon the fuel price. A
be lower for future plants
are somewhere between €50-100 per
tonne. This is far more than the current
cheaper fuel gives a lower capture cost. price of €20/tonne CO
2
.
In addition, a lower energy loss gives a lower specific
investment cost. This is due simply to the fact that the same The Outlook
plant, with the same absolute construction costs, will have ThecommercialdeploymentofCCSwillrequireco-operation
fewerkWhofelectricityproductiontodefraythecostsifenergy and support from all stakeholders in society: governments,
consumption is higher. These points may cause confusion industry, research institutions, financiers, media, NGOs and
when comparing different technology options. Basically there the public. The industry can develop CCS technologies to
are two factors governing cost relationships: technical and commercial maturity over the next 15-20 years.
-The efficiency of fuel to electricity conversion. International research and demonstration projects are being
-The extra investment needed to capture the CO
2.
planned and developed around the world such as the Zero
Emission Coal to Hydrogen Alliance (ZECA), the US DOE’s Vision
Basedonthesetwofactors,generatingcosts,andthuscapture 21 and the FutureGen Programmes.
and avoidance costs, can be calculated for a given plant. A Charter on CO
2
was signed in June 2003 creating the
The basis for economic calculations includes a number of Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) with
variables such as fuel prices, plant availability, annual participation of 22 countriesand the European Union. Thisisa
operating hours, economic lifetime, interest rates, and so on. ministeriallevelinternationalclimatechangeinitiativefocused
In order to achieve consistency when comparing various on the development of improved cost effective technologies for
options, all these data have to be presented in connection with the separation and capture of CO
2
for its transport and long-
thecalculatedefficiencyandcostpenaltiesforCO
2
capture.As term safe storage. The mission of the CSLF is to facilitate the
a

n example, a modern coal-fired plant costs less than development and deployment of such technologies via
1,000/kWe and has an electrical efficiency of 48%. This in collaborative efforts that address key technical, economic and
turn means that smaller amounts of CO
2
will have to be environmental obstacles. The CSLF also promotes awareness
captured from this plant than from power plants already built and champions legal, regulatory, financial and institutional
and operating. Together with more developed and optimised environments conducive to such technologies.
138 worldPower 2009
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