This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
Renewables & The Grid
the issues move to the integration of renewables into the Integration of hundreds or thousands of generation sources
operation of the grid. Some of the issues can be solved with into existing energy management systems and distribution
planning – relaying and protection schemes can be redesigned management systems, as well as developing operating rules is
and the new standard can be deployed as circuits are another significant chunk of work. Knowing what is really
maintained or built. This is an important step in being ready happening in the distribution network is more than just a
for distributed generation, and not just renewable generation. renewableissue:Mostofthedistributionnetworkhasverylittle
Working with regulators to determine how to test the status of in the way of sensors available to provide information. Putting
power electronics and what the utility is allowed to require for this issue on to renewables is unfair, but it is a gating item for
the safety of workers is also an important step. For example: successfully installing S-Dist and V-Dist. Smart metering is a
Can the utility cut the wire to the power step in the right direction for sharing
electronics and remove it if the
Knowing what is really
this cost.
islanding device is not functioning
correctly? What are the rules for safely
happening in the distribution
The good news is that nothing new
needs to be invented – only improved
operating these devices and ensuring
network is more than just
and deployed (with the exception of
maintenance? This will have to be a renewable issue storage). Renewables are a key part of
solved for each utility as there is no fixing the carbon emissions issue and
universal answer. Site approval is an issue that will not go providing electricity where the cost of power is not tied to the
away, and in most cases it is the responsibility of someone cost of fossil fuels. Fuel price swings and the move to carbon
other than the utility. Putting the devices on the right phase, if markets will tend to accelerate the move to renewables.
theyaresinglephase,againisanissuethattakesworkingwith President Obama’s energy team will also accelerate this move
the regulator to find a way to incentivise people to put them in in the US which will have an impact on the rest of the world.
the right places, or for the utility to install and support Regulators, customers, utilities, manufacturers and
installation in the right places. independent power producers will all have to work together to
Dealing with variability is tough. The choices are ancillary make this work. For more than 100 years we have been
services, demand response or storage. To date there are no improving, perfecting and investing in existing electric grid.
good answers for storage, although the battery industry keeps One estimate for transmission alone indicates that the US
promising that in five years they will have an answer. This would have to spend over US$900 bn to support a plan like
began in the 1970s and continues to be a five year promise. Pickens. Globally, this would amount to trillions of dollars.
Demand response means installing devices that either provide We have a long way to go, we need to make the journey, but
information or control in homes. This is part of many smart knowing the issues we will encounter along the way and
metering deployments. Finally, there is ancillary service – planning for them in advance is more likely to make that
burning fossil fuels to support the integration of variable journey a success.

renewables in the grid or holding hydro facilities in reserve to
provide instant voltage support. This is a question that will
Doug Houseman is Associate Director with Capgemini
take research, planning and operational work to provide an
specialising in energy utilities.
answer, and it will not solve the ‘too much power’ issue on a
E: doug.houseman@capgemini.com
day when customer demand drops to almost nothing.
T: +1 (734) 604 0008
Harmonics, reactive power and power quality are more
www.capgemini.com/energy
difficult problems to solve. Transmission operators manage
*Table Sources:
reactive power and many of the sensors on the transmission
1) Electricity generation costs & investment decisions: A Review;DennisAnderson;
networks exist to handle reactive power. Capacitor banks are
Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology; Feb 2007.
2) EIA Report #: DOE/EIA-0554 (2008).
helpful in managing reactive power, but typically they do not
3) Shaping & Firming Wind Energy with Electric Energy Storage; Dr. Robert B.
exist out in the distribution network and neither do the sensors
Schainker; EPRI; Nov 2006.
and controls to use them effectively. Harmonics and power
4) A Future For Nuclear Energy – Pebble Bed Reactors; Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D.;
MIT; Apr 2004.
qualityforthesmallercustomer(todate)havebeenignoredas
5) Note the first 165 MW pebble bed reactor in South Africa has a
too expensive for the benefits they can deliver. The question is,
US$8,400/kWh price including R&D and all the costs associated with a first
when will the tipping point be reached and these problems
time project.
6) PES Wiki - http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Thin_Film_Solar
have to be addressed?
7) www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/50342/story.htm
worldPower 2009 145
Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156  |  Page 157  |  Page 158  |  Page 159  |  Page 160  |  Page 161  |  Page 162  |  Page 163  |  Page 164
Produced with Yudu - www.yudu.com