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7.4.5 The Risk Assessment shall be able to show that the MASS is able to be operated to a tolerably safe level, ideally proven to be as safe as an equivalent manned counterpart (i.e. similar size and carrying similar payload / cargo).


7.4.6 The protection measures afforded on a manned vessel, e.g. emergency engine stop in the case of fire, often rely on a human operator to detect the fault and to trigger the stop mechanism. On the MASS, these measures must be fully automated unless the attendant risk can be otherwise reduced to an acceptable level (e.g. using electric propulsion, no fuel aboard; nobody on board put at direct risk; etc).


7.4.7 The Risk Assessment shall highlight all potentially critical failure modes which are mitigated using failure sensors and/or “defence in depth”, dual or multiple redundant safety features, as these need to be identified for the purpose of test and accreditation of the MASS.


7.5 Situational Awareness Sensors


7.5.1 Most of the sensors considered in Sections 7.6 and 7.7 may be regarded as optional, but some may be considered essential on certain MASS under certain circumstances; or they may represent the best way to ensure the necessary levels of safety equivalent to a manned counterpart.


7.5.2 The overall need for monitoring shall depend on the considerations above, being guided specifically by the out- come of the Risk Assessment.


7.6 Internal sensors (platform monitoring)


7.6.1 Internal sensors may be fitted for monitoring the platforms’ vital functions and safety. This may include a monitoring capability which would normally be provided by crew onboard.


7.6.2 Examples include:


n Health status of command datalinks, in particular those with the ability to receive an Emergency Stop command (this may be considered essential);


n Operability and health status of sensors that are identified as vital; n Operability and health status of on-board systems which govern the ability to control the direction and speed of movement of the MASS (Heading or COG and STW/SOG);


n Operability and health status of on-board systems such as propulsors, platform control systems, collision avoid- ance systems, autopilots, servos, communications datalinks, and other internal sensors which may be needed to maintain platform and mission integrity;


n Remaining fuel; n Watertight integrity; n Integrity of the hull (or hulls); n Structural damage to the overall MASS or its components; n Entanglement; n Pitch, roll and heave; n Vibration; n Shock.


7.6.3 The level at which these may be considered essential depends on the type of MASS and operational conditions, as indicated in Table 7.1 below. The need should be driven by the necessity to reach equivalent safety levels for all MASS with their manned counterparts.


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Being a Responsible Industry: An Industry Code of Practice


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