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Table 2.3: Level of Control Definitions Level


Name 0 Manned Description Vessel/craft is controlled by operators aboard 1 Operated


Under Operated control all cognitive functionality is within the human operator. The operator has direct contact with the Unmanned Vessel over e.g., continuous radio (R/C) and/or cable (e.g., tethered UUVs and ROVs). The operator makes all decisions, directs and controls all vehicle and mission functions.


2 Directed


Under Directed control some degree of reasoning and ability to respond is implemented into the Unmanned Vessel. It may sense the environment, report its state and suggest one or several actions. It may also suggest possible actions to the operator, such as e.g. prompting the operator for information or decisions. However, the authority to make decisions is with the operator. The Unmanned Vessel will act only if commanded and/or permitted to do so.


3 Delegated


The Unmanned Vessel is now authorised to execute some functions. It may sense environment, report its state and define actions and report its intention. The operator has the option to object to (veto) intentions declared by the Unmanned Vessel during a certain time, after which the Unmanned Vessel will act. The initiative emanates from the Unmanned Vessel and decision-making is shared between the operator and the Unmanned Vessel.


4 5 Monitored Autonomous


The Unmanned Vessel will sense environment and report its state. The Unmanned Vessel defines actions, decides, acts and reports its action. The operator may monitor the events.


The Unmanned Vessel will sense environment and report its state. The Unmanned Vessel defines actions, decides, acts and reports its action. The operator may monitor the events.


In practice, levels of control may be different for different functions aboard the same vessel (e.g. a vessel navigating under LoC4, may also deploy a payload that is controlled at LoC2). The LoC applied to the vessel may also change during a voyage (e.g. LoC 1 in a VTS, but LoC 4 in open ocean passage).


“Master” – for the purposes of this code, the term “master” as outlined in the IMO instruments should mean a specific person officially designated by the owning company / owner of the vessel as discharging the responsibilities of the Master of the vessel. This will be an employee of the company who has been assessed as competent to discharge these responsibilities in accordance with the provisions of this code. This person may be located anywhere provided that the required level of control and communication can be maintained to discharge these duties.


“MASS” –Maritime Autonomous Surface Ship. A term adopted by the IMO MSC for their scoping exercise which means, for the purpose of this code, a surface ship that is capable of being operated without a human onboard in charge of that ship and for which the level of control may encompass any of those shown at Table 2.3 above.


“MASS Watch Officer” is the individual who has responsibility for the MASS when it is operational.


“Owner” – The title holder of the vessel. If the “Company” is not the Owner, then the Owner shall report the name and details of the Company to the Administration.


“Operator” – An entity (e.g. a company) that discharges the responsibilities necessary to maintain the vessel in a seaworthy condition and compliant with all relevant IMO Instruments and national legislation. The operator is also responsible for ensuring that all staff concerned with the control of MASS hold appropriate qualifications as required by IMO instruments and national legislation.


Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships up to and including 24 metres in length 15


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