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Fig. 2. Two marking op- tions were tested for the vision system: concentric circles and straight lines. Both were seen fine under normal light conditions (top) but a screenshot from the vision system reveals only the circles remained visible due to reflection issues and high-angle tilting.


图2:对视觉系统的两个 标记方法进行了测试: 同心圆和平直线。二者 在正常光源条件下(上 图)表现很好,但是, 从视觉系统的屏幕截图 可以看出,只有同心圆 记号在反射和高角度倾 斜时仍可见。


image captured by the camera was processed by the vision system and transferred via closed network connection to the robot. Te robot gripper then moved the electromagnets accordingly to pick up the part.


Vision System Challenge: Picking from Conveyor vs. Bin


Te vision module was to perform object recognition of


a three-dimensional part and locate the coordinates. Mark- ers were cast-in to aid in an accurate estimation of the part’s orientation for a pick-and-place operation from a conveyor belt and stationary bin. Te stove components were flat with dimensions varying between 0.3 and 0.9 sq. in. (200 and 600 sq. mm) and thicknesses between 0.2 and 0.3 in. (5 and 8 mm). Picking from a conveyor belt when parts were lying separately at a distance was conveniently implemented for automation. But when parts were combined in random order in a bin, issues arose in identifying the part orientation. Two marking options were tested for this purpose: concentric circles and straight lines (Fig. 2). Te straight line markers were discovered to have a reflec-


tion limitation when the tilt angle of the vision system was greater than 30 degrees for iron castings. Tis made the con- centric circles a better option for tracking because a part of the circle was identifiable even under the light of the vision cameras (reflection issues).


到机器人。于是,机械手通过移动电磁铁抓取铸件。


视觉系统的挑战:从传送带和固定箱获取铸件的 比较


视觉系统模块用于识别三维铸件并确定其坐标。镶 铸的标记帮助准确判断铸件的排列方向,用于从传送带 和固定箱的取和放的操作。火炉铸件是扁平的,尺寸从 0.3到0.9平方英寸不等(200到600平方毫米),厚度为 0.2到0.3英寸(5到8毫米)。当铸件在传送带上等距离 单独放置时,这时,机器人可以方便地从传送带上取下 它们。但是,当铸件被随意放进箱子里时,就存在铸件 方向识别的难题。为此,测试了两种标记方法,分别是 同心圆和平直线(图2)。


针对铸铁件,当视觉系统的倾斜角度大于30度时, 平直线记号受到反射的限制。即使在摄像机的光源下 方,同心圆记号的一部分也可以被识别,因此,同心圆 是更好的记号选择。


将铸件安全送到指定的设备也是很重要的。以最合 理的价格,使用柔性机械手和智能界面(灵活的工作空 间、视觉系统等)的机器人使设备更具灵活性,自动变


62 | FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM | MODERN CASTING | CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION December 2015


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