This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
069


For many, the Birds Nest of the Beijing Olympics became the symbol of the 2008 Games. Successful as a piece of structural iconography, it was big, bold and impres- sively of the moment. It was clear when planning for 2012, however, that any at- tempt to match this show of Chinese might would be totally inappropriate. From the outset, the London games took an entirely different approach. The focus was on a smarter games, one built around principles of longevity and sustainability with ‘legacy’ woven in as part of the narrative – delivered with the style and panache appropriate of a global event.


In 2008 a consortium of several companies was established by the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) and tasked with creating a considered design for the main stadium that would be built on the Olympic Park. ‘Team Stadium’ was headed by Sir Robert McAlpine as design and build contractor, with Popu- lous (formerly HOK Sport) as Architect, HED as Landscape architect and Buro Happold as engineers, with specialist illumination by Happold Lighting.


As part of the stadium’s adaptable design, facilities are located outside the main structure. The demountable nature of the upper tier resulted in a low roof height, requiring floodlighting to be positioned on A-frame towers around the stadium perimeter. Pic: London 2012 / Populous


Their solution was to create a structure that used far less construction material (particularly steel) than the Beijing , Athens or Sydney stadiums. It was devised to be built in two tiers, with an upper 55,000 seat stand that could be demounted after the games to leave the 25,000 seat lower layer when the site entered ‘legacy mode’. One consequence of this approach was a relatively low roof height. This meant the team had to develop a method of placing light fixtures in a position that would allow effective illumination of the Field of Play but without causing excessive glare to the players, officials, spectators or cameras. Their answer was to create fourteen A-frame lighting towers that provide the necessary flexibility to aim light across the infield without requiring excessive tilt angles, thus reducing glare and complying with International Amateur Athletic Federa-


DEUTSCH DEUTSCH


Die Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) gründete 2008 ein Konsortium aus mehreren Firmen und beauftragte es mit der durchdachten Planung eines Hauptstadi- ons, das im Olympic Park gebaut werden sollte. Unter der Führung von Sir Robert McAlpine -Planung und Ausführung - startete das “Team Stadium” mit der Arbeit; zusammen mit Populous (früher HOK Sport) als Architekten, HED als Landschaftsarchitekt und dem Büro Happold als Ingenieure und dem Beleuch- tungsspezialisten Happold Lighting. Ihr Vorschlag war ein geteiltes Stadion mit zwei Rän- gen. Ein Stadion mit höhergelegenen 55.000 Sitzplät- zen, von denen nach den Olympischen Spielen nur die unteren 25.000 Plätze bestehen bleiben, wenn die Spielstätte wieder zum normalen Betrieb übergeht. Eine Konsequenz aus diesem Ansatz war eine relativ niedrige Dachhöhe. Dies bedeutete, daß das Team ein Dreieicksrahmen-Lichtsystem vorsehen mußte, das hoch oben positioniert werden konnte, um so Spieler,


Offizielle, Zuschauer und Kameras vor übermäßig blendendem Licht zu schützen. Das Dreiecksrahmen- Lichtsystem wurde am Boden vollständig montiert, bevor es eingehoben wurde. Lasersichtgeräte können angewendet werden, so daß eine Ausrichtung auch erfolgen kann, wenn die Beleuchtung ausgeschaltet ist.


ITALIANO


Nel 2008 è stato istituito un consorzio di alcune aziende da parte dell’Olympic Delivery Authority - ODA (organismo di gestione dei Giochi Olimpici), con l’incarico di elaborare un considerevole progetto per lo stadio principale che sarebbe stata realizzato nel Par- co Olimpico. Il ‘gruppo dello stadio’ era capeggiato da Sir Robert McAlpine quale impresario edile e proget- tista, unitamente a Popolous (un tempo HOK Sport) in qualità di architetto, HED come architetto del paesag- gio e Buro Happold quali ingegneri, con l’illuminazione specializzata di Happold Lighting. La soluzione proposta dal gruppo è stata quella di


tion (IAAF) and International Commission on Illumination (CIE) guidelines. The towers have walkways integrated at each level to permit easy access for re- lamping and aiming (as requested by the broadcast team). They are also designed to be fully fitted before being lifted into place. A soft focus was carried out at ground level – based on the lighting calcula- tions provided – and then final aiming was refined once all equipment was securely fixed in place. Laser sights can be applied so that aiming can occur when the luminar- ies are off. Access for re-lamping is via the rear of the fixtures, avoiding the need to re-aim each time.


The lighting design has been developed as a series of overlapping layers that can be switched in stages to provide similar cover- age, but with reduced lighting levels in each mode. The luminaires used have a high efficacy (in excess of 100 l/W) and there is an option to re-use and re-aim existing luminaires to provide a multi-use venue post games.


The original scheme was devised long before the event broadcasters had been identified, but the flexibility of the system allowed aiming to be modified to suit broadcast requirements. This included enhancing the contrast between the specta- tors and field of play and coordinating the luminaires across different phases to ensure consistent imagery where super slow motion cameras were used.


The main consideration for HDTV purposes was the balancing of horizontal and verti- cal lighting levels to bring them within a specific contrast ratio. Care was also taken to ensure the lighting levels and uniformity criteria were achieved for both fixed and moving camera positions. The floodlights contain quartz metal halide source lamps with rotationally symmetrical optics. These provide a CRI of over 90 and colour tem- perature of 5600K.


uno stadio ideato per essere costruito su due livelli, con una struttura superiore avente 55.000 posti che può essere smontata dopo i giochi, in modo da lasci- are una capienza di 25.000 posti nel livello inferiore quando lo stadio verrà utilizzato ‘nella modalità tra- dizionale’. Ciò ha avuto come conseguenza, un tetto relativamente basso in altezza. Per cui il gruppo ha dovuto elaborare sistemi di illuminazione a triangolo, tali da poter essere posizionati in alto. Si è quindi evi- tata una luce accecante per i giocatori, i funzionari, gli spettatori o le telecamere. Il sistema di illuminazione a triangolo è stato interamente montato a terra prima di essere sollevato al suo posto. Possono essere ap- plicati i mirini laser in modo tale che si può ricorrere al puntamento ad illuminazione spenta.


ESPAÑOL


En 2008, la ODA (Olympic Delivery Authority), estab- leció un consorcio de varias empresas y les encomendó la creación de un diseño para el estadio principal que se construiría en el Parque Olímpico. El Team Sta-


dium estuvo encabezado por Sir Robert McAlpine como contratista para el diseño y la construcción, junto con Populous (anteriormente llamado HOK Sport) como ar- quitecto, HED como arquitecto de paisaje y Buro Hap- pold como ingenieros y con iluminación especializada por parte de Happold Lighting. La solución planteada fue un estadio ideado para ser construido en dos niveles, con un lugar destinado a 55.000 asientos en la parte superior, que pudiera ser desmontado luego de los juegos, para así dejar el es- pacio de 25.000 asientos de la parte inferior cuando el sitio se convierta en legado. Una de las consecuen- cias de esta propuesta fue la de tener un techo rela- tivamente bajo. Esto significó que el equipo tuviera que desarrollar un sistema de iluminación sobre un bastidor en forma de A que pudiera ubicarse arriba. Esto evitó que hubiera excesivo resplandor para los ju- gadores, autoridades, espectadores o cámaras. Dicho sistema de iluminación fue equipado completamente en la planta baja antes de ser elevado a su lugar. Pu- eden aplicarse laser sights para que se puedan apun- tar cuando las luminarias están apagadas.


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156  |  Page 157  |  Page 158  |  Page 159  |  Page 160  |  Page 161  |  Page 162  |  Page 163  |  Page 164  |  Page 165  |  Page 166  |  Page 167  |  Page 168