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Annex 13-2: Overview of Key Policy Developments and Governance Responses at a Global Level
The CBD has been the key convention in the last two decades for biodiversity conservation, sustainable use of biodiversity and equitable access and benefit sharing of genetic resources (IUCN 2018a; 2018b).
The need for integrating biodiversity science with policy design, analogous to that which exists for climate change, prompted the establishment of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) in 2012 (Diaz et al. 2015; Allison and Brown 2017).
The importance of biodiversity is also recognized in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 14 (life below water) and 15 (life on land) adopted by world leaders on 25 September 2015 at the UN General Assembly. The clustering of the goals is discussed in chapter 20 (see Figure 20.1)
An important response to the need for the protection of biodiversity has been the establishment and management of protected areas, reflected in Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. The IUCN defines a protected area as “a clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.” (IUCN 2018c). Figure: UNEP-WCMC and IUCN 2016.
The Natural Capital Coalition, which evolved out of the TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity) For Business Coalition in 2014 is an international collaboration that aims to mainstream natural capital approaches in the public and private sectors.