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Microplastics are now appearing in food consumed by humans; however, the impact on human health is uncertain (GESAMP 2015; Halden 2015). Plastic particles have been found in the intestines of fish from all oceans and in products such as sea salt (e.g. Yang et al. 2015; Güven et al. 2017). There are currently no standard methods for assessing the health risks of ingesting plastic particles. For fish at least, people do not generally consume their digestive tract where plastic accumulates, so intake is probably limited. In instances where people consume whole organisms, such as mussels and oysters, ingestion rates could be higher (Van Cauwenberghe and Janssen 2014; Li et al., 2018). Moreover, the aesthetic and restorative value of the ocean for people is well known, but there is evidence that the presence of marine litter can undermine the psychological benefits generally provided (Wyles et al. 2015).


Some plastic products contain dangerous chemicals (e.g. fire retardants) and plastic marine litter can also attract chemicals from the surrounding seawater (e.g. UNEP 2016; UNEP and GRID-Arendal 2016). However, the fraction of chemicals contained in plastic or sorbed to plastic in the ocean, is currently considered to be small compared to the chemicals found in seawater and organic particles that originate from other land-based sources of pollution (Koelmans et al. 2016). There are currently no proven toxic effects of chemicals


sorbed by plastic particles found across a range of marine biota, but more data are needed to fully understand the relative importance of exposure to sorbed chemicals from microplastics compared with other exposure pathways (Ziccardi et al. 2016).


The economic and social costs of marine litter include indirect effects such as interfering with small-scale fishing opportunities, tourism and recreation (Watkins et al. 2017). These costs are generally unquantified but may fall disproportionately on those with livelihoods most closely tied to coastal activities. Some direct economic costs include the cost of beach cleanup and accidents related to navigation hazards or fouling (UNEP 2016). The European Union has estimated that every year up to €62 million are lost to the fishing industry from damage to vessels and gear and reduced catch due to ghost fishing (abandoned gear that continues to catch marine organisms as it drifts) and up to €630 million is spent on beach cleaning (Acoleyen et al. 2013).


7.4.5 Emerging Issues for the Ocean


Exploitation of the ocean is expanding and a number of key emerging issues will need to be addressed by policy makers as this exploitation continues.


7


Box 7.3: Coastal sand mining


Around the globe, coastal and nearshore areas are being mined for construction sand and gravel. These are non-renewable resources, although deposits are replenished by a number of processes including erosion of the coast, riverine transport of sediments and biological production (Woodroffe et al. 2016) and landward sediment transport. Sand and gravel are the second most-used natural resource on our planet, after water. Annual sand and gravel consumption is estimated at around 40-50 billion tons (5.2-6.6 tons per person per year, or c.20 kg per person per day), 26 billion tons of which is used for making concrete (Peduzzi 2014).


Most sand comes from the erosion of mountains by rivers and glaciers. It is estimated that all the Earth’s rivers deliver around 12.6 billion tons of sediment to the sea each year (Syvitski et al. 2005). Consequently, humans are currently using sand at a rate four-times that at which it is being produced by nature. Desert sand cannot be used as an aggregate because the grains are too smooth and rounded from constant motion over desert dunes.


Many European countries have been mining sand from offshore sand banks for several decades (Baker et al. 2016). The practice is expanding rapidly in other parts of the world, but the exact volume mined is currently uncertain. The act of dredging the seabed kills organisms in the mined area and the plume of disturbed mud can blanket the seabed and smother sea life in surrounding areas. Illegal and poorly regulated sand mining on beaches (and in rivers) is causing major damage to ecosystems and landscapes (Larson 2018). For example, in Kiribati, beach mining has increased vulnerability to coastal inundation (Ellison 2018) and in central Indonesia, sand mining is one of the identified threats to seagrass beds (Unsworth et al. 2018).


Actions to reduce the global ‘sand mining footprint’ include conserving existing buildings and substituting recycled material for sand and gravel in new projects. It is also possible to replace sand in concrete with 15-70 per cent of incinerator ash, depending on the use (Rosenberg 2010). Research into developing desert-sand-based concrete is expanding and new products are currently being trialled (Material District 2018).


Improved knowledge of sandy environments and their dependent ecosystems is needed in order to make the wisest use of remaining sand and gravel resources (Peduzzi 2014). There is no mention of seabed mining or coastal erosion in the SDG indicators.


Oceans and Coasts


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