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Figures


Introduction and Context Figure 1.1:


Choices to be made to achieve a healthy planet for healthy people. ........................................06


Figure 1.2: The DPSIR approach used in GEO-6. ...................................................................13 Figure 1.3:


Structure of GEO-6, with a link to its Theory of Change (see Annex 1-3). ....................................15


Drivers of Environmental Change Figure 2.1: World population, emissions and fertility. ...............................................................26 Figure 2.2: Figure 2.3: Figure 2.4:


Emissions per capita according to demographics. .......................................................27 Projected world population. ...........................................................................28 Consumption and associated environmental pressures are unequally distributed between nations. ............29


Figure 2.5: World population distribution and composition. .........................................................30 Figure 2.6:


Contraceptive prevalence and total fertility. .............................................................30


Figure 2.7: Female secondary education and total fertility rates. .....................................................31 Figure 2.8: Figure 2.9:


Global urban population growth propelled by cities. ......................................................32 City growth rates. ....................................................................................32


Figure 2.10: Where rapid growth faces high vulnerability. ............................................................34 Figure 2.11: Built-up area vs. Population (1975-2015). ...............................................................35 Figure 2.12: How growth rates in developing countries began outstripping those in developed countries. ..................37 Figure 2.13: World trade growth. ..................................................................................38 Figure 2.14: Milanovic´s elephant curve. ...........................................................................39 Figure 2.15: Industry 4.0: technological transformation of future industrial production. ..................................43 Figure 2.16: Mean atmospheric CO2


concentration. .................................................................43


Figure 2.17: Global growth in emissions of GHGs by economic region. ................................................44 Figure 2.18: Emission trends in different countries from 1990-2015. ..................................................45 Figure 2.19: The carbon crunch. ..................................................................................45 Figure 2.20: Multiple independent indicators of a changing global climate. .............................................46 Figure 2.21: The enhanced burning embers diagram, providing a global perspective on climate-related risks. ..............47 Figure 2.22: Trends in numbers of loss-relevant natural events. .......................................................48 Figure 2.23: Relationship across the drivers. .......................................................................50


The Current State of our Data and Knowledge Figure 3.1: SDGs data and knowledge framework. .................................................................60 Figure 3.2: Figure 3.3:


SDG indicator status. .................................................................................60 Environment-related SDG indicators by goal and tier. .....................................................61


Figure 3.4: GEO-6 major data gaps organized by respective chapter. .................................................61 Figure 3.5:


Unpaid care work.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Figure 3.6: Equity questions in data and knowledge. ...............................................................66


Cross-cutting Issues Figure 4.1: The economic and human impact of disasters in the last ten years.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Figure 4.2: Percentage distribution of the water collection burden across 61 countries. ................................81 Figure 4.3: Key competencies and performance of sustainability citizens. ............................................82 Figure 4.4: World urbanization trends. ............................................................................84 Figure 4.5:


Figure 4.6: Figure 4.7: Figure 4.8:


Global annual average temperature anomalies (relative to the long-term average for 1981-2010). Labelling designates different data sets; for explanation refer to the source. ................................85 Arctic sea ice age and extent. .........................................................................87 Chemical intensification, 1955-2015. ...................................................................88 Global illegal waste traffic. ............................................................................90


Figure 4.9: West Asia non-conventional annual water resources. ....................................................91 Figure 4.10: Example of ore grade decline over time for copper mining, showing world annual copper production and estimated tailings generated annually. ..................................................................92


Figure 4.11: Technology wedges to achieve the 2°C pathway. ........................................................94 Figure 4.12: Ranges of levelized cost of electricity for different renewable power generation technologies, 2014 and 2025. ..94 Figure 4.13: The subglobal distributions and current status of the control variables for (A) biogeochemical flows of phosphorus; (B) biogeochemical flows of nitrogen. ......................................................96


Air


Figure 5.1: Figure 5.2:


Figure 5.3: Figure 5.3 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4:


Primary linkages between pressures, state and impacts of atmospheric change. ...........................109


Linkages between changes in atmospheric composition and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. .................................................................................110 Annual emission trends from 1990 to 2014 in kilotons by pollutant, region and sector. ......................111 (continued): Annual emission trends from 1990 to 2014 in kilotons by pollutant, region and sector. ...........112 (continued): Annual emission trends from 1990 to 2014 in kilotons by pollutant, region and sector. ...........113 Global fuel shares of electricity generation in 20151


. ....................................................113


xiv


The Sixth Global Environment Outlook


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