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7


Box 7.4: Deep sea mining


Commercial deep sea mining has not yet begun, but the International Seabed Authority (ISA) has currently entered into 15-year contracts with companies for exploration of polymetallic nodules (the Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone and the Central Indian Basin), polymetallic sulphides (South West Indian Ridge, Central Indian Ridge and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts (Western Pacific Ocean). In addition, a number of Pacific Island nations with potential deep sea mineral resources have issued exploration licences or are updating relevant policies before doing so.


Globally, deep sea mineral deposits are becoming more attractive to mining companies as they search for higher grade ore bodies (Secretariat of the Pacific Community [SPC] 2013a; SPC 2013b). These include: (1) manganese nodules that exist as cobble- to boulder-sized rocks scattered over broad areas of the abyssal ocean floor at depths exceeding 5,000 m; (2) cobalt-rich crusts formed on the flanks of seamounts and other volcanic sea floor features; and (3) massive sulphide deposits that are formed in association with hydrothermal vents found along sea floor spreading ridges, back arc-basins and submarine volcanic arcs. Benthic communities inhabiting these environments are globally unique and host many endemic species (Beaudoin and Smith 2012). Interest in mining these deposits is most advanced in relation to massive sulphide deposits located in the south-west Pacific, but many unanswered questions remain about the environmental impacts (Boschen et al. 2013).


Potential impacts of deep sea mining are poorly studied, but are generally assumed to include (1) direct impacts on the benthic communities where nodules/ore deposits are removed; (2) impacts on the benthos due to mobilization, transport and redeposition of sediment over potentially broad areas; and (3) impacts in the water column in cases where mining vessels discharge a plume of sediment near the sea surface, thus affecting photosynthesizing biota and pelagic fish (Morgan, Odunton and Jones 1999; Sharma 2001). A seabed disturbance experiment in the Peru Basin found very little recovery of benthic fauna 26 years after mimicking mining operations (Marcon et al. 2016). Lack of knowledge and understanding has been argued as one reason for countries to proceed with caution in developing these resources (Van Dover 2011; Van Dover et al. 2017). In the context of deep sea mining, the world has a unique opportunity to make wise decisions about an industry before it has started.


The ISA is responsible for ensuring effective protection of the marine environment from harmful effects of deep sea mining in areas beyond national jurisdiction (in accordance with Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea). The Authority is in the process of developing the Mining Code, which contains rules, regulations and procedures to regulate prospecting, exploration and exploitation of marine minerals in the area (International Seabed Authority [ISA] 2017).


Many states with potential deep sea minerals have developed or are developing policies to regulate this new industry. These include a range of initiatives – for example, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community Regional Legislative and Regulatory Framework for Deep Sea Minerals Exploration and Exploitation (SPC 2013b), Cook Islands National Seabed Minerals Policy (Cook Islands Seabed Minerals Authority 2014) and the Tuvalu Seabed Mining Act 2014 (Tuvalu 2014).


Box 7.5: Anthropogenic ocean noise


There is increasing concern regarding the potential impact of anthropogenic acoustic noise on marine life. This is noise generated by a range of activities including shipping, seismic surveys, military operations, wind farms, channel dredging and aggregate extraction (Inger et al. 2009). Large commercial ships generate noise in the frequency range from 10 to 1,000 Hz, which coincides with frequencies used by marine mammals for communication and navigation (Richardson et al. 1995). There is evidence that low-frequency noise has increased significantly in the deep ocean since the 1950s (Andrew et al. 2002; McDonald et al. 2006; Chapman and Price 2011). However, some recent observations have shown a constant level or slightly decreasing trend in low-frequency noise (Andrew et al. 2011; Miksis-Olds and Nichols 2016). There is limited information on noise levels in the shallower water of the continental shelf (Harris et al. 2016).


Evolutionary adaptations that have allowed many marine species to detect sound may now make them vulnerable to noise pollution (Popper and Hastings 2009). Sound energy dissipates as a function of the distance squared, so proximity to the sound source is a major factor for calculating impact. Early research on noise and marine mammals focused on high-frequency sound, such as ship sonar, which had been implicated in whale strandings (e.g. Fernández et al. 2005). More recently, researchers have tried to determine the impacts of common, low-frequency sounds on marine mammals. Although it is difficult to determine the impact of anthropogenic noise on marine mammals, there is general consensus that it can cause adverse effects, from behavioural changes to strandings (Götz et al. 2009). A review by Cox et al. (2016) on the impact of ocean noise on fish behaviour and physiology determined that certain sounds can disrupt communication and interfere with predator-prey interactions. Low-frequency noise has also been found to impact crustaceans, producing changes in behaviour and ecological function (Tidau and Briffa 2016).


There are increasing concerns about the long-term and cumulative effects of noise on marine biodiversity (CBD 2012). The CBD (operational paragraph 3 of Decision XIII/10) calls for improved assessment of noise levels in the ocean, further research, development and transfer of technologies and capacity-building and mitigation (CBD 2016). The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2017/848 (European Commission 2017) has recently provided criteria and methodological standards to ensure that introduced noise does not adversely affect the marine environment and proposed standardized methods for monitoring and assessment.


The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea makes no specific mention of anthropogenic noise, but if the introduction of noise into the marine environment is likely to have a negative impact on the environment, it may be considered a form of pollution under UNCLOS. Delegates at the United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea (ICP-19, 2018) disussed recognizing underwater noise as a form of transboundary pollution to be mitigated and addressed through an United Nations General Assembly resolution.


190 State of the Global Environment


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