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570


ROSA


is on plants that bloom prolifi cally over a long season and have abundant disease-resistant foliage; some breeders are also developing plants that can sur- vive cold winters with no special attention. Modern shrub roses need little or no pruning to remain shapely. Because they bloom almost continuously, they pair well with perennials in borders. These shrub roses vary widely in growth habit and fl ower color; loose categories are listed below. Some shrub roses make tidy small climbers. For more shrub rose choices, check the section on species roses on page 575.


Hybrid musk shrub roses. Budded or own-root


clockwise from left: Rosa ‘Dark Lady’; R. ‘Sally Holmes’; R. ‘Molineux’


Bare-root plants are graded R


1, 11⁄2, or 2, number 1 being the best. Suppliers usually offer only grade 1 plants, and they will often replace plants that fail to grow. A healthy bare-root rose has thick, green canes and a big cluster of sturdy, fi brous roots. Reject any with dried-out or squishy roots or with canes that are weak, shriveled, or beginning to leaf out.


Buy bare-root roses as soon


as they appear for sale, rather than when they are marked down as bargains. Be wary of pack- aged bare-root roses displayed indoors on store shelves; the roots are wrapped in a moist material, but indoor warmth may cause the material to dry out. Of bare roots it is aptly said that if they dry, they die. In milder-winter zones, you can plant bare-root roses throughout winter. In areas where the ground freezes, plant either in fall before the soil freezes (then protect plants over winter) or in early spring after the soil has thawed.


roses. Many old roses, spe- cies roses and their hybrids, and virtually all miniature and shrub roses are propagated by cuttings and grown on their own roots. About 70 percent of modern roses are budded onto a standard understock—a completely different rose variety whose root system thrives in a wide range of soils and climates. There is a current trend, how- ever, to try new varie ties on their own roots and grow them that way when feasible. Both budded and own-root roses grow well and produce fi ne fl owers. Budded plants are often larger at the time of pur- chase than own-root plants, but both kinds will be equally husky within a year or two. Own-root roses do have one advantage: if the plant is killed to the ground by cold (or mowed down by accident), it will regrow from the roots as the rose you want. Regrowth from roots of a bud- ded plant, in contrast, will be from the understock rose, whose fl ower won’t look any- thing like the rose you bought. Another plus: own-root roses don’t sucker.


MODERN ROSES Most of the thousands of roses for sale are modern roses— ones introduced after 1867, the year the fi rst hybrid tea rose was developed. For more than 100 years after that, breeders raced to produce the most per- fect hybrid teas, grandifl oras, and fl oribundas, the fl owering “modern” rose bushes that form the core of many public and residential rose gardens. However, in the past few years, landscape roses, particularly the lax and leafy shrub roses, have become almost as popular.


The chart on the opposite page presents a list of excellent modern roses grouped by type and color. Refer to the informa- tion below to learn about the ancestry and growing character- istics of the different types of modern roses.


Shrub roses. Planting roses for general landscape use is not a new idea; some fi ne shrub roses date to the early 20th century. Today, however, rose breeders are developing new roses for use purely as fl owering shrubs. The emphasis


These were developed in the fi rst 30 years of the 20th cen- tury from a descendant of the musk rose (R. moschata). Hybrid musks are large (6–8 ft. tall) shrubs or small climbers that perform well in dappled or partial shade as well as in sun. Most are nearly everblooming, with fragrant, clustered fl owers. Some hybrid musks don’t fl ower prolifi cally in mild climates.


Hardy shrub roses. Cana- dian and Midwestern breeding programs have produced rose bushes that survive northern and Rocky Mountain winters with virtually no special protec- tion against cold. Some resem- ble fl oribundas and grandifl oras; their ancestries include hardy species roses as well as fl ori- bundas and hybrid tea roses. These have “country” names like ‘Country Dancer’ and ‘Prai- rie Princess’. Others are mostly large shrubs to small climbers, bred in part from R. rugosa. Many of these are named for explorers: ‘John Cabot’ and ‘William Baffi n’ among them.


Miscellaneous shrub roses. Many modern shrub roses are of complex or unknown ancestry and fall out- side the categories listed above. Among these miscella- neous shrub roses are several very well-known ones, such as ‘Home Run’ and ‘Knock Out’. ‘Sally Holmes’ grows like a climber in mild climates.


Trademarked roses. Recog- nizing public loyalty to brand- name products, some rose


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