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ROSA


569


these problems, plant roses where they will receive after- noon shade, and away from refl ected heat from light-colored surfaces.) Best fl owering in hot- summer areas is in spring and autumn.


If you live in a cold-winter


area, choose roses that are suffi ciently cold-hardy for your region, or check out how to pro- tect less hardy varieties in win- ter (see “Winter Protection for Roses,” right). In Zones 1–3, hybrid teas, grandifl oras, and fl oribundas need protection. However, the hardy hybrids (bred primarily in Canada and Iowa) can go through winter with little or no special protection. Many old roses (chiefl y those that fl ower only in spring), as well as a number of species roses and their hybrids, also survive in Zones 1–3 with scant or no winter protection. In Alaska, the native Nootka rose is hardy enough to need no pro- tection, as are some of the other extra-hardy species roses and their hybrids, such as the wonderfully fragrant rugosas (R. rugosa).


BUYING PLANTS Mail-order catalogs and/or web- sites offer the widest choice of roses; they are practically the only way to shop if you are look- ing for lesser-known varieties. You’ll also fi nd roses for sale in local nurseries and garden cen- ters, home improvement and hardware stores, and even some supermarkets.


Container-grown roses.


Plants in plastic or pressed- peat pots are available from retail stores from early spring through fall, year-round in mild- climate regions. The best time to shop is in mid- to late spring, when the plants are in bloom, the largest selection is avail- able, and you have a chance to plant out your purchases before summer heat arrives. You can, however, plant container-grown roses at any time during the growing season (see “Planting,” page 576).


Choose plants with strong


new growth and healthy-looking leaves. A large (preferably 5 gal.) container is better than a small one; it’s less likely that the roots had to be cut back severely to fi t in the container when the


Winter Protection for Roses


Where winter temperatures regularly drop to 10°F (–12°C), tender roses, such as many hybrid teas, fl oribundas, and grandifl oras, need protection. Low temperatures can kill exposed canes; repeated freezing and thawing will kill canes by rupturing their cells; and winter winds can desiccate exposed canes. A healthy plant that is hardened


off before the fi rst hard frost withstands harsh winters better than a weak or actively growing one. Prepare plants for winter by timing your last fertilizer appli- cation of the growing season so that bushes will have stopped putting on new growth by the expected date of the fi rst sharp frost. Leave the last crop of blooms on your plants to form hips (fruits), which will aid the ripening process by stopping growth. Keep plants well watered until the soil freezes.


After a couple of hard freezes have


occurred and nighttime temperatures remain consistently below freezing, mound soil over the base of each bush to a height of 1 ft. Collect the soil from another part of the garden; do not scoop soil from around the roses, exposing their surface roots. Cut excessively long canes back to 2–4 ft. (the lower fi gure applies in Zones A1–A3 and 1, 2, and 3a). Use soft twine to tie the canes together to keep them from whipping around in wind. When the mound has frozen, cover


it with evergreen boughs, straw, or other fairly lightweight material that will act as insulation and keep the mound frozen. A 3–4-ft.-tall wire-mesh cylinder fi lled with noncompacting insulating material (such as straw, hay, oak leaves, or pine needles) may preserve much of the cane growth it encloses. Remove the protection in spring after


frost danger is past. Gradually remove the soil mounds as they thaw, working care- fully to avoid breaking new growth that may have begun sprouting under the soil.


PROTECTING CLIMBERS. Mound climbing roses the same way, but protect all of


their canes. Where winter lows range from 5°F to –10°F (–15°C to –23°C), insulate the canes by wrapping them in burlap stuffed with straw or a similar material. Where temperatures normally go below –10°F (–23°C), remove canes from their support, gently bend them to the ground, and cover them with soil. (A wiser plan, however, is to plant only climbers known to be hardy in such climates.)


PROTECTING STANDARDS. Standards (tree roses) may be insulated in the same


manner as climbers, but they still may not survive, since the head of the tree is the most exposed. Some gardeners dig up their standards each year; pack the roots loosely in soil; and store the plants in a cool garage, basement, or shed until replanting time in spring. A simpler technique is to grow


standards in large containers and move them in fall to a cool shed or garage where temperatures won’t drop below 10°F (–12°C).


PROTECTION IN ALASKA. If you are grow- ing roses in Alaska, you’ll probably agree


with the rosarian in Anchorage who told us, “Roses aren’t hard to grow in Alaska, just tough to keep.” To overwinter tender hybrid roses, dig a trench 2 ft. deep beside the house and bury your roses in it, removing any remaining foliage fi rst. Dig them up for replanting in mid-May. Sim- ply mounding soil over cut-back bushes isn’t enough protection. If the roses are in pots, you can move them to a basement wall under a deck for winter and toss wood shavings over them; or take the pots into a sunroom. Some gardeners inter their roses—they dig a trench in the garden, slip in a bottomless wood box made to fi t the trench, put the roses in the box, and cover them with builder’s sand.


R


plant was potted. Avoid plants with roots protruding from the bottom of the container, as well as those showing weak growth or blackened areas of dieback on the canes. All are signs that the plant has been in the con- tainer too long and may not establish well in your garden.


Bare-root roses. During late winter and early spring, nurser- ies and stores may also offer bare-root roses; these are dor- mant plants with no soil on the roots. If you shop from mail- order nurseries, typically you’ll receive bare-root plants, and the shipping may begin in fall.


It doesn’t harm the roses to be dug up and transported bare-root, and although you can’t see your roses in fl ower, bare-root plants have advan- tages over plants sold in con- tainers: they are generally less expensive, and they adapt to native soil more quickly.


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